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Lecture 2

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Monday January 21, 2013 Lecture 3 Marx capitalism: 1. Two premises of Marx’s approach: • humans have essential needs • these needs are satisfied by entering into predetermined social relations 2. What are these social relations? • The mode of production 3. Capitalism • The commodification of labour • Founded on a class division • Classes have conflicting interests • Gap between productive power and the shrinking control of worker • Creates alienation • Not a final form of society 4. Communism • End alienation by ending society divided into classes Review true or false: 1. The epoch of the bourgeoisie has simplified class antagonisms 474 2. Historically the bourgeoisie has played a reactionary role p.475 3. Commercial crises show the revolt of modern productive forces against property relations. P478 4. Under capitalism the lower strata of the middle class sinks gradually into proletariat page 479-480 5. As industry grows the proletariat is increasingly divided 480 6. As industry grows so does the solidarity of the bourgeois in different countries 481 7. In the final stage of the class struggle a small section of the ruling class joins the revolutionary class page 481 March 4 he will talk about grad school 1. 2 premises of Marx approach: to make history human beings must produce the means of living- he just means to be active as human beings, be creative, and in order to do that we need to meet the basic necessities such as food and shelter to survive. The tool for historians to understand why societies organize the way they are and they forgot certain fundamentals. One premise (assumption taken unimportant) basic needs. 2. These needs are predetermined (free will) – Marx-says these needs are constant they had to meet these needs. For example, we know that many humans lived as hunter and gatherer to meet these needs and we now cannot live like that since our society is not set up to meet our needs in such a society. To live in hunter gather needs skills like hunting and figuring out which plants are good for medicine thus needs training and socialization. We have a potential to live like that if we were born in such a society. Marx says think of capitalist society or proletariat where they have no choice to enter the capitalist system and to sell their labour on to the market. The predetermined social was the capitalist mode of production. Marx is specific talking about the mode of productions 2. the mode of production(the predetermined modes of relation) : Forces of production: • nature (raw materials, energy) • instruments of production ( tools, machines) • labour( producers organized to cooperate) • technical knowledge Relations of Production: • which class controls the forces of production? Mode of production: • forces of production + relations of production – broadly speaking we will talk of Marx ways of meeting those needs. The ways the societies are organized to meet those needs are mode of production. Forces of production are also called means of production – we are talking about the material necessities involved in meeting those needs like nature, water energy, coal energy, tools like automotive factory and we are not distinguishing. Labour produces cooperate workers and technical knowledge things to know to create medicine- meaning science applied to production. It’s the material basis of production. Relations of production – it is more central, it is more to power inequality meaning which class control the force of production and in a capitalist society we may have rubber, plastic transformed to materials and have workers to do that work but knowing that is not enough to know the mode of production we are dealing. Forces of production do not tell us the mode of production and its more the relation. There are 6 Marx identifies historically, but incorrect to believe that Marx thinks society moves through these stages thus not a stage theory just giving a catalogue of different societies that existed modes of production type: • primitive communism – classless society, the force of production is controlled in common , no dominate class, which is more like hunter gather. • ancient society- ancient Rome, and certain cities of ancient Greece, heavy reliance on slavery. Societies that are characterized by division of those who are salves or slave holders. However isn’t the proletarian the same? No Marx would say that a capitalist society the owner does not own the worker rather buy it in a market exchange but in ancient society the slave and offspring is the belonging t the owner • Asiatic mode of production- India and is a society where they are split between a ruler who is in great public works (pyramid, temples, wall of china) and the peasants. India vast irrigation system. • Feudalism- power is concentrated in the emperor and beaucrats, power is centralized to elites, a lord receives a land from over lord and that lord in the area where he controls the land has great economic power and can extract, surplus, animals, had political power, made the law, and even had a religious influence (serfs and lords- 2 classes) • Capitalism- those who control the means of production (beugoise) those who sell their labour • Communism – classless society like primitive communism, so society is no longer in classes (no more unequal mode of production ) 3. capitalism : the commodity – is anything that can be sold in the market, and said that in ancient society slaves maybe sold but in capitalism workers are not being sold and they only by a certain amount of our time thus different than ancient society. Capitalism is the wide spread commodification of labour. Marx claimed that pointing out this mode of production labour was not always organized this way and it always pointing out that capitalism being of mode of production he pointed out that capitalism is not the inevitable mode and would move to another, He is saying capitalism founded on class division on antagonism (bourgeoisie and proletariat) on conflicting interest. The proletariat is not being paid full y to the value added to the raw materials. So materials coming out is higher than when first bright in. The proletarian adding the values is not being compensated and that is their exploitation and the bourgeoisie having cheap labour. There is a term called the division of labour- splitting up the task of labour. A simple division of labour – women to certain tasks and men other. A men being a hunter is the division of labour in that society and not only will he haunt but he will make the tools for that society, and labour after the haunting. Complex division of labour- the tasks are more simple, like working in a assembly line in factory and wouldn’t be hard to replace a worker because the tasks aren’t skill complex but repetitive. Breaking up tasks is making us have wants but having dull work, repetitive, and creates alienation – worker is alienated in what they produced, alienated from their own creative capacity, alienated from the bourgeoisie since they are standing as an enemy rather than a allies, and alienated from the productive activity and not feeling good rather shrinking as human activity. - not a final form of society- it has contradiction which will kill itself and form a new society. 4. Communism: he does not have too much to say, but he associated features with it. He says that under capitalism human relation is reduced to market relation – alienation. Estrangement from bourgeoisie and from oneself. To end this alienation it starts by abolishing private property where
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