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Politics as a Vocation: True or False 11/03/2013
oAccording to Weber:
1. the state is an association that claims sovereignty over a territory- page 78
2. authority is legitimate domination- page 78-79
3. charisma is the authority of “the eternal yesterday”- page 78-79
4. In domination by virtue of legality, obedience is expected by virtue of devotion and personal
confidence in revelation, heroism, or other qualities of individual leadership- page 79
5. Organized domination calls for a control of a staff and of material means of administration-
page 80
6. States vary depending on whether those who govern own the administrative means- page 81
7. The feudal vassal paid out of his own pocket for the administration of his fiefdom- page 81
8. The development of the modern state involves the expropriation of the autonomous and
“private” bearers of power -page 82
othe paper needs an argument, a counter argument, start now and talk to TA
oLast lecture we talk about authority and thinkers such as Kant who stated society can debate
rather than be part of a monarch
oSynonym for public realm is state and synonym for private realm is civil society
ocivil society is a realm for ideological struggle- when we contrast ideas from Marx and
Gramsci and the question is the ideas that are found in civil society are they worthy for
Marx and Gramsci on Ideology
oA. Marx on ideas:
o1. two examples:
othe state
o2. Ideology= inverted ideas
o3. an overload part of the German Ideology
oB. Antonio Gramsci 1891-1937
o1. Italian context:
olate unification
onorth-south economic differences

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othe church
o2. Gramsci’s life
o3. Making Revolution: Russia vs. Italy
o4. Hegemony= leadership (involves consent, not coercion)
o1. For Marx religious exists because it is a kind of a drug where it is a opium for people and
Marx believes that even tough religious ideas are not to be trusted for revolutionary it is bad
to attack the ideas. Marx said that the task of revolutionary is getting to the root causes such
as exploitation in which if there is a classless society the motivations to religious societies
would disappear than.
othe state – the sate is an epiphenomena since the state exists to carry out the exploitation. The
task of revolutionary should not be to destroy the state but to usher in a classless society and
when that is reached the state will dissolve on its own. Marx is against the state but he says
that the task is not to topple it just like his religion where he was against it but did not want to
force opposite religious ideas.
o2. ideology= inverted ideas – ideology represents a form of distorted thinking like religion,
the laws issued by the state because although we are persuade by the state believing the laws
are for all but in reality it is there to ensure the domination of one another. The class who has
the means of production has the control of means of other control.
o3. an overlooked part- Marx the materialist is skeptical about revolution to terrain on ideas
and yet there is hints that he takes ideology more seriously than writing in the state. Marx
talks about how successful revolutions are brought together. He said that in revolution
processes it is not the case of one social class over another class rather there is an alliance of
class that is overruling. What would one do with such an idea? If you look at the relationship
between them you would see a dominate element in the subordinate alliance. Marx says that
there is a dominate element in the beugoise making their own interests like the interests of
others like peasantry.
oB. 1. Gramsci – Italian context: Italy is a late unifier and their industry was located in the
north region and the south primarily agriculture.
othe power of the church- totalitarian means a one party state has significant ability to get rid
of counter influences in a society and Italian church did not go away so Italy cannot be
totalitarian. The church has strong local neighborhood presence. The church urged the
Catholics not to participate in politics.
o2. Gramsci’s life- he was asking how a socialess society be achieved in Italy. Looking at
1921 he was one of the cofounder of a communist party. In 1926 the fascist arrested him and
sent to jail because he was a communist and most of his writing was done in prison. He died
in jail.

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o3. The Russian revolution and after the revolution Gramsci goes to Russia and in that time
there was a debate on soviet unions. He goes to Moscow to learn and to figure how the
example in Russia can be followed in other countries. Does the Russian revolution provide a
model for how we should achieve our revolution? Gramsci concluded that it would be
mistaken to implement strategies used in Russia in Italy because a different strategy is
needed due to different relations to state. In Russia Gramsci felt the state was dissociated
from the civil society, the beliefs and the church which meant that the communist had to
attack the state in Russia which than they could commend society in going to the direction
they wanted. What would have in Canada if a revolutionary went to Ottawa and said we are
taking over the country? It would seem that society would not follow them as capitalists
would be against them, churches would be against It, and on and on. This is the case of
Russia where capitalism was not so favoured and the church were not a big favour of the
state. Gramsci would say that Italy was like Canada that they were not so keen on become
revolutionized. It would be foolish that a revolutionary can do this overnight so what must
we do? Gramsci believed that classes need hegemony.
o4. Hegemony- the working class would have to have a leadership in alliance with the
peasantry. An alliance where the working class would take leadership representing their own
interest. This would involve compromises with the working class with the peasantry in order
to maintain hegemony. Gramsci believed that Italy in the day exercised the hegemony and
exercised itself as a leader of society and like Marx he saw it as a fiction but unlike him he
thought that they had to prepare for revolution in order to contest the ideas of beurogoise, the
church, etc.
oWeber in reading states why do men obey? not because they believe in the rules but because
they fear for their life or property than coercion is at play but if people believe that those
commends are legitimate is authority and consent is obedience in which authority prevails.
Coercion is not consent and its more domination. Gramsci said that the revolution did not
have to win normally but rather using violence. If one is to read Gramsci who puts an
emphasis on cultural struggle it does not mean he forgot violence. He said that prevailing
ideas is a must be using violence is another step needed and necessary to achieve revolution.
Ideas are not sufficient alone for ushering in a communist society.
oGermany, Italy, Spain were societies that had a strong belief that churches stood in front of
revolution. Why certain leftist seen as prize catchers in communist countries? The second
replication has to do with going against imperialism.
oBuilding on the readings from Marx last week go onto Gramsci and understanding history
through western Europe
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