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Lecture 2

Week 2 readings.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC205H1
Professor
Brent Berry
Semester
Spring

Description
SOC205 Week 2 Readings: Chapter 1: Canadian Urbanization in Historical and Global Perspective • For most of human history, people were hunters and gatherers ▯ nomadic form because people had to move to  new sources of food and waste • Human settlements occurred both as a response to the need for protection and as a reflection of power  • Development of agriculture  ▯people growing and raising food rather than always on the move for search of it  allowed for a more sedentary way of life  ▯settlements grow in size, developed forms of government and  systems of law • Earliest known settlements thought to be Jericho (today Israel) Characteristics of early cities: • They were the centres of a civilization in which there was some sort of dominant authority • None of these early settlements grew continuously • (these settlements weren’t linked, but scattered) The Agricultural Revolution: Precursor to the Modern City • First stage in the agricultural revolution: Key for development of permanent settlements was the  domestication of plants and animals  o Humans didn’t have to move with their food supply  o When they started producing more than they needed to survive, some people could be released from  food production. So this food surplus could support city dwellers who would be free to build, think,  invent, create.  ▯This made it possible for cities to grow and develop with a more  complex division of  labour • Second stage: mechanization of agriculture • The consequences of producing a surplus: 1. Development of much more complex division of labour  ▯people could specialize in non­agricultural  pursuits 2. Supported a more hierarchical society in which leaders could extract a portion of surplus in a form of a tax  3. The existence of a ruler­controlled surplus required an administrative structure to manage the surplus and  the social controls that rewarded those who conformed to the wishes of the leaders and punished those who  did not ▯ accentuated social inequalities 4. Social inequalities  ▯some people were allowed to live a more leisurely life, while others had a slave type  existence  The rise and fall of cities: • Hinterland: locations beyond cities that produce the food and supplies necessary for urban living  • City needed a hinterland to supply its needs  Capitalism, industrialism and the city: • Emergence of capitalism  ▯when labour was no longer exchanged for non­monetary subsistence but could be  exchanged for monetary reward  • Social stratification no longer dependent solely on status and property but also related to income and  achievement • Industrial Revolution  ▯factory separated place of work from place of residence and introduced a more  complex class system • Factory workers exploited labourers to minimize costs for maximum gain  • Factory represented space­intensive and labour­intensive activity  • Large numbers of people could find gainful employment in a relatively small space which made larger, denser  cities possible  • First time that there was ‘unemployment’  Colonialism and the rise of new cities: • The rise of nation­state in Europe as central government sought to consolidate their power over their own  territories • So they looked to control new lands to extend their influence but also to satisfy the demands of their urban  marketplaces • Characteristics of colonial cities: administrative centres structured by representatives from imperial  governme
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