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Lecture 5

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Candace Kruttschnitt

SOC212: Lecture 5  Delinquency theory started at the University of Chicago  At the core are two different models: o Social disorganization  Looking at the lack of values within a particular culture or between a culture and the social structure  Includes ‘Shaw and McKay’ (not really mentioned in text, but really important) + Thrasher  Mckay also brings in social control  Strain theory  associated with Merton, Cloward e Owin, Cohen) o Cultural deviance  Focused on conducts which reflected socialization to some cultural values that conflict with law  If you grow up in a culture with different values than one you’re living in  Sutherland, Miller (important)  Sutherland had a pure theory of cultural deviance (  How do people learn deviance and crime  Related ethnogroup  Studied white collar crime  He wondered why people who had everything would do crime (what’s the advantage, where does that come from?)  o Pure theories are rare (like social disorganization and cultural deviance) o Downes and Rock (textbook) says that although there were two different methods, they influenced each other a lot. Social Disorganization Theory:  Shaw and McKay ideas influenced by what was going around them in Chicago  They were confronted with a ewildering array of different explanations for delinquency  There ere high rates of urband linquency, poverty and this led some of the rformers that the corruption of the city was the major problem in explaining crime and deviance  On the other hand, there were a number of covalent cience theories  Some Italian man _____ (Considered first psoitivit(  Darwin and evolution of species influenced ___ and led to theory that criminals were not as evolved as other people; These were the criminals who got caught .  Shaw and McKay took an exception ot the notion of biological/psychologically inferiority. 2 Questions: 1. How are deliqnuents distributed throughout city of Chicago 2. What are the social conditions associated with high delinquency areas?  1920-1940’s  plotted delinquent male na females (in phildelipha, bostcon, Cleaveland, Richmond  For four decades in different locations, the findinds,  What are the array of conditions with the rare how these kids live?  They have a high rate of social ills (things like high rate of infant mortality  So, these two findings led them to hear: o 1. They found as they plotted their data that higher population—less involved o Kind of community that produces the delinquency, ot the individual. ‘ Postulate of Theories: 1. Organized neighborhood= distant neighborhoods 2. Social distoreation  less control of kids 3. When you have less control over kids (lack of social control) lead to teehach the development of street gang. 4. Delinquent traditions passed on 5. High delinquent roles Problems:  Police spend more time in one zone than another  Make us question about official crime rates  Doesn’t reflect white collar crime  Organization with entral ore (buisnesss sect Canadian Applications of Shaw and McKay’s Theory 1. Dawson’s study of Montreal a. Ie (Transportation, Crime and delinquency, welfare, housing) b. mOre succesfful people went from city and Dufferin (‘Dufferin district’) was the transitional zone c. Dufferin became the slum, and Asian/European immigrants from the cities. d. The more successful English/French citizens left. e. The work of Dawson and his students are often overlooked, it represents an important avenue because it supports a theory/principle in criminology to the study of crime. f. If you use the principles that Dawson and his students did in areas in Toronto i. Have pockets where different groups are involved ( 2. Ouimet (2000) test of social disorganization and criminal opportunities on juvenile crime rates  Found that social disorganization variables predicted offender rates very well but the opportunity variables seem to be more important in where the time committed III. The Social Ecology School Community deterioration and economic decline 1. Sampson a. Violent crime rates among blacks in urban areas  What kinds of things would be important if your’e thinking about social ecology in expl
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