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Lecture 2

SOC243 Week 2.docx

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William Magee

SOC243 Week 2, 2013 Winter-Spring Global Health: Nutrition and Water -Can’t tell if data is due to poverty -Power in African countries and south central Asia/Americans= difference -You see mortality and prevalence of disease is dropping, you also see (according to world health organization) you see faster spreads today, when epidemics start, they spread faster -You see more new ones  since 1970s, they identified 40 new diseases (due to environmenta33!estruction and the rate of this destruction)  Ex. Cut down forests, deforestation, get ticks (east coast), lead to lime disease, etc. -Governments make political decisions based on lots of things (decision to invest in one thing, but causes conflict with other interests)  Lots of corruption  What’s the way to look at what’s happening globally -In text: mentions HIV as a bad government decision (this isn’t restricted to poor countries); there were a lot of governments who are not investing or doing what they could have done to reduce the spread of the epidemic  Political decisions have different reasons backing it up -Mortality in children  usually due to infrastructure Measles:  Mortality rates are still high (in poor countries)  According to the WHO, measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood disease  In 2010, there were 139,300 measles deaths globally worldwide compared to 800,000 in 2000, a 74% reduction. More than 95% of measles deaths occur in low-income countries, 45 000 cases of Measles  Strong link of measles, morbidity/mortality to nutrition o Lack of Vitamin A (for children under age 2) o Broader age groups (and even adults), vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness  Malnourished children, who develop xerophthalmia (dry eyes) and have an increased risk of complications (ie. Blindness) and death from measles o Vitamin A deficiency deaths in 2002 o  Distribution of food is the big issue (and has to do with the inability of people to pay)  Food linked to World wide markets; production of food is mechanized is industrialized through industrial livelihood  More than 17 million people are facing starvation in Africa West (the southern part of the Saharan area) Linked to rainfall, economic issues, etc.  Food Insecure  Lack of clean water (is a more pressing problem than food); more likely to become severe in the near future  Preventable disease blinds poor in third world, Trachoma (news article) Other consequences of nutritional deficits -Stunting:: height for age that is 2 or more standard deviations below a standard that identifies risk for mortality due to incomplete development of vital organs (permanent lifelong risk)  According to UN~ 165 million children under 4, or 26% were stunted in 2011 -Wasting: (muscle and fat ‘waste away’) due to acute malnutrition as indicated by weight/height 2+sd
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