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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 July 25.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC367H1
Professor
Nikolauo

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INEQUALITYAND EDUCATION 25 JULY 2011 WEEK SEVEN - Inequality and Education o Chris Richardson guest lectures on the work of Pierre Bourdieu o Lareau (2003) o Schissel & Wortherspoon (2003) Guest Lecture – Chris Richardson - Habitus of the Hood- Chris Richardson (book) - Habitus one form, looked at in the hood Queens bridge - Nas CD covers – first CD: in the “hood” young black youth, last CD cover: he is in front of NYC, famous , older, different clothing, - Queens bridge: real place, specific, Bronx, coming from distinct areas, - unique sound and influence on people - Definition of Habitus- “…a system of durable, transposable dispositions, structured structures predisposed to function as structuring structures, that is, as principles which generate and organize practices and representations.” – Bourdieu wants you to use the definition, not simple or static, use as interrogating material o Habitus: liking one singer over the other (dispositions, things you like) and are conscious, the habitus helps you understand why you pick something over another, they structure, represent a structure too o Pertains to groups, individuals etc… o Habitus is also “two capacities which define the habitus, the capacity to produce classifiable practices and works, and the capacity to differentiate and appreciate these practices and products” – it is what makes you “you” – how you appear to people, how you dress, why you do all that – the field is why you have the habitus – cannot exist on their own!  Being able to identify which aisle a Cd is in – knowing the musical habitus o The city never sleeps Full of villains and creeps That’s where I learned to do my hustle Had to scuffle with freaks “New York State of Mind” – Nas - Bourdieu born 1930 died 2002- born outside Paris thus was an outsider in terms of bourgeoisie metropolis, did a lot of work in Algeria, and applied what he learned in Algeria to Paris schools - Trained as a philosopher - Jean Paul Sartre dominant influence in school system – the individual is free, to do what he /she pleases... dominant thinking* - Levi Strauss- father of structuralism, would not look at an individual but rather the structures creating individuals, predecessor of Bourdieu (polar opposite to Sartre) - Bourdieu’s field “A field consists of a set of objective, historical relations between positions anchored in certain forms of power (or capital) while habitus consists of a set of historical relations “deposited” within individual bodies in the form of mental and corporeal schemata of perception, appreciations and action” – the men listed above comprised his field… - a field is a time and a place, place with distinguished people - Cultural capital up and down – economic capital left to right (money) A field of gangs- not a field in itself, within a certain time and place would be a field “To understand anything: is to understand the field which and against which one has been formed.”- Bourdieu – Field structures habitus, habitus structures field Habitus helps explain why you do things, not conscious - Kanye as an example of capital: Louis Vuitton – high cultural capital, but poor cultural capital in terms of education - Hear habitus in his explanation – starts a beat, by sampling certain artists, What is he talking about and how is he talking (this is what Bourdieu would look at) - Harold Melvin, Dr. Dre, Jay-Z = creates using his past and modernizes – past experiences mixing with your environment and making this thing that is you - Aretha Franklin and Kanye taking a past construct and modernizing - Curtis and modernized by Kanye West’s “Touch the Sky” - Anyone who recognizes these things without pointing it out, you are part of this habitus and field – you would have that cultural capital – how you translate your knowledge and experience to improve standing - Kanye West read in terms of university field- his cultural capital would not be rewarded in university = shows how fields work, some knowledge is rewarded in some fields - Habitus + field + cultural capital= Bourdieu’s method - Told via families and popular culture - One’s habitus allows them to distinguish between certain people- proof habitus exists- watching people get out of a theatre- you can tell which movie they just saw (Menace II society vs. Bridgett Jones) Bourdieu labels it as mis-recognition – good for incorporate race class gender - Reproduction debate- puts people into a box- this is misread- structuring structure- feed off each other, people get fed up with education system – Ex: 1968 Paris Uprising those changing the university system- way cultural capital and habitus work together - “I do not see where my readers could have found the model of circular reproduction which they attribute to me (structurehabitusstructure).” - circular reproduction often attributed to Bourdieu - Habitus influences a decision “The intellectual will risk, in a word, awakening all the forms of anti-intellectualism that were hitherto dormant here and there, among the masters of today’s world, bankers, businessmen, including the left, nearly all of whom are now holders of cultural capital, and of course among intellectuals themselves. But to indict anti- intellectualism, which is almost always based on resentment, does not exempt the intellectual from this critique to which every intellectual can and must submit himself or herself or ,in another language from reflexivity, which is the absolute prerequisite to any political action by intellectuals” – everyone is an intellectual in some part BOURDIEU ―In any given society, the transmission of privilege is ‗mis-recognized.‘‖ (Lareau, 2003) Our tendency to see privilege mis-recognized or unrecognized… Lareau looks at is there a difference in how middle class raise children opposed to how poor parents are = are they aware? - We see: Patterns of domination/inequality at heart of social structure Questions Bourdieu would ask: o How do individuals maintain or improve/challenge their social position? - If you have more cultural capital, more likely to improve your lot o Why the tendency to see society‘s social arrangements as legitimate? • Or not see them altogether? DISCOURSE OF MERITOCRACY ―Many Americans believe in the American Dream.‖ (Lareau, 2003)  Key concept to pair with Bourdieu, discourse of meritocracy well summed with American Dream- we tend to see society as composed of little actors competing and result of their merit, that will make people successful - Society as a collection of competing individuals - Success/status/privilege is earned - Differences in achievement the result of differences in effort / hard work / merit - Image of the equal starting line (individual choice tells us only your merit) - This position rejects - Continuities of empire, histories that privilege and oppress - Social structural location • HABITUS – Different social locations socialized differently • Socialization: generic sociological concept attempting to understand how people acquire competencies to participate in society • Structure of mind, the unconscious/mundane • Non-discursive knowledge‘s, body techniques/language • Tastes, preferences in cultural practices, sensibilities, notions of fairness/ethics that we tend to see as individually chosen (as what makes us unique) ―A set of internalized dispositions … toward culture, society, and one‘s future that the individual generally learns at home then takes for granted … Differences in habitus give individuals varying cultural skills, social connections, educational practices, and other cultural resources, which then can be translated into different forms of value (capital) as individuals move out into the world … in a large number of social spheres (fields).‖ (Lareau, 2003: 276) ―These background experiences also shape the amount and forms of resources [whatever agents take as desirable/significant, economic, social or cultural capital ] individuals inherit and draw upon as they confront various institutional arrangements [social arenas where people manoeuvre and struggle in pursuit of desirable resources/capital fields ] in the social world.‖ (Lareau, 2003: 100) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7FXPnkwSCyE Nice link to how people either maintain position of field or through cultural capital manoeuvre position through life – how ultimately social structure maintained as a whole Manipulation/adaptation ―… The extent to which [people] are able to make effective use of the resources they are endowed with is a function of the adaptation of their habitus to the specific field … [Bourdieu] would point out that the number elite slots in society is limited.‖ (Lareau, 2003: 277) • Activation of habitus/capital in SOC 367 texts so far? - Frankenberg (1993) asking white women how do you understand racial structure of child care? How would Bourdieu’s theory apply here - Reynolds (2009)- instance of social capital, the extended kin network of African Caribbean families and having children go see grandparent, to diffuse parental conflict as a drop off point- source of capital because they had more access to children, dismantled impression of deviant fathers - England and Stiell (2008) – looking at domestic work, see result of our understandings of race and ethnicity impact how people conceived their job, how they named themselves, whether domestic or named Nanny – English bring in own education that was valued - Lareau (2003)- - Nakano Glenn (2009) LAREAU (2003: 278) - Parents mostly thought it was like breathing- not conscious, thus a natural thing according to parents ―Like breathing, child rearing usually seemed automatic and unconscious. Parents were scarcely aware they were orienting their children in specific ways.‖ ―In sum, we need to understand the individually insignificant but cumulatively important ways in which parents from the dominant classes actually facilitate their children‘s progress through key social settings.‖ ―Family practices cohere by social class.‖ - Lareau even went so far to say social class trumps race - Lareau studied families’: o Use of time o Language and communication patterns o Kinship ties - “concerted cultivation” - “accomplishment of natural grow” - The family was structured around children’s extra-curricular activities which parents thought benefited them, vs. working class poor who believed the child would bloom if basic provided! CULTURAL LOGICS OF CHILD REARING CONCERTED CULTIVATION ACCOMPLISHMENT OF NATURAL GROWTH class position middle (to upper) class poor, working class relentless talk of money, children deeply aware of economic constraint in home parent-child actively foster and assess children’view children’s development as unfolding interactions cognitive and social development spontaneously—when provided with essentials/basics heavy parental involvement, close proximity to children give children space more speech between children and less speech between children and adults, adults, relentless focus on reasoninadults use of directives negotiation “Parents generally used language not as children receive enormous amounts an aim in itself but more as a conduit for of individualized attention social life. Directives were common.” (239) children squabble, talk back to parents less whining/badgering, complaining of boredom by children Play adult-organized extracurricular child-initiated play activities (i.e. “play dates”) parents organize child’s time in/around extensive time waiting, travelling thome extracurriculars exhausts parents and children, disrupts family strong family ties schedules close shared physical space in home informal and frequent play with peers/siblings/cousins unrestricted access to TV children autonomously organize leisure time children long to participate in organized extracurriculars institutional parents and children appear calm, parents and children appear interactions comfortable, entitled uncomfortable, constrained, powerless, subdued, intimidated, distrustful, unable which college to attend to intervene on child’s behalf subtle excitement at school whether to attend college graduation; parents/children attend dressed in professional dress; considerable enthusiasm at school songs/speeches speak of bright graduation; parents/children dressed very future, success fancily; songs speak of civic responsibility, respect, danger/struggle in future participation in sports/arts learn to develop and value an individualized parents tendency to turn over sense of self, they learn to responsibility to professionals perform/present, experience glory, defeat and humiliation in public i.e. Harold, who was used to responding settings to directives at home, primarily answered questions from the doctor, rather than i.e. Alexander was used to extensiveposing his own conversation at home; with the doctor, he was at ease initiating i.e. “Unlike Ms. Williams, Ms. Mc
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