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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Silvia Vong( Universityof Toronto St.George)

1 SCM301 LECUTURE NOTES WEEK 1: SPECIAL COLLECTIONS & ARCHIVES—SEPTEMBER 10, 2012 Special Collections - Meanings can vary from institution and can include: o Rare books (19 century printing) o Manuscripts o Maps o Illustrations o Non-book formats - Differs from archives because it does not store personal records of individual - Can focus on a particular theme or subject area - Can be searched through the library catalogue Purpose of an Archive - Preserves and protects the history of cultures, society, religions etc... - Historical documentation of an entity (person or organization) - Creates a controlled environment for delicate materials - Documentation for historical, legal, or financial reasons - Archivists can provide/teach patrons how to conduct research Difference between Archive & Special Collection - Archive: o Materials originate from one creator or one organization o Materials are not readily available and in some cases due to privacy, are not open to library patrons. Items do not circulate o Faith and sharing Fonds o Henri J.M Nouwen Archives o Sheila Watson Fonds o University of St. Michael’s College Archives - Special Collection: o Materials are collected based on a particular theme, and subject area. Rarity and the conditions of the text are also considered o Depending on the condition, materials can be made accessible to library patrons but do not circulate (cannot be checked out) Archival Organization - Fonds - Respect des fonds o Provenance—Letters, financial records, photographs, study notes, teaching materials 2 o Original order—Photocopies of scholarly articles  notes  draft of paper - Finding aids Archive Life Cycle: Types of Materials - Books and other publications - Manuscripts - Ephemera - Photographs - Artifacts - Other media Value of Materials - Research o The usefulness or significance of materials based on their content, independent of any intrinsic or evidential value (Society of North American Archivists)  Ex: census records can provide information value/research value to a researcher about their family’s history - Archival o The enduring worth of records based on the documentary evidence or information they contain, that justifies their ongoing preservation in archival care (Millar 2006)  Ex: maps of the city from 1900s to present - Evidential o The value of records and archives as authentic, trustworthy information on decisions, actions, transactions and communications, either by the person or agency that created those material or by persons or groups with those records or archives (Millar 263)  Ex: contract between a company and client - Intrinsic o The worth of a unit of archival material that is associated with the unit’s physical qualities; its association with particular events or issues; its content, structure, and context or its original form and material nature (Millar 265)  Ex: book from 19 century with deckle edged or uncut pages 3 - Historical o Significance or relevance to historical events or practises  Ex: printing press from the 16 century - Cultural o Significance or relevance to society beliefs and practices  Ex: newspaper articles during 1920s in the United States on prohibition WEEK 2: RESEARCH IN SPECIAL COLLECTIONS & ARCHIVES—SEPTEMBER 17, 2012 - Records are “pieces of information that have been captured on some fixed medium” Documentary & Physical Evidence - Letters between a writer and publisher about book option (Published book) - Diary entry by famous composer about inspiration for musical score (Musical Score) - Contract between client and artist for commissioned art work (Painting) Authenticity and Truthfulness - Can something be simultaneously real and fake? Evidence and Value - Publications - Ephemera - Photographs - Artifacts (ex: elephant and the paperwork) Principle of Provenance—the origin or source of something, or as the person, agency or office of origin that created, acquired, used and retained a body of records in the course of their work or life - Provenance in the Special Collections Context: o Past ownership o Bought/sold o Multiple ownership Original Order –the organization and sequence of records established by the creator of the records Respect Des Fonds—“wrinkle in the theory” - first archives from difference creating agencies should not be intermingled; and second, that the original order in which materials were created and used should be respected - Fonds and the “whole” o Provide notes and information - Items and context/Archival value of items o Appraisal policy and research 4 - Multiple provenances o Detailed custodial history - Fonds vs. collections/Archives and Collections o Archives are not collected o Collection within fonds - Functional provenance o Provide history and functional label - Absence of provenance and original order o Assess resources and archival value - Standard terms Archival Arrangement - Collections is not an appropriate term in the archives - Preserving the record and making it accessible is a part of archivist’s duty - Finding aids are necessary for organization Sir Hilary Jenkinson - 1882-1961 - British - Wrote Manual of Archive Administration (1937) - 48 years in Public Record Office (Principal Assistant Keeper and Secretary (1938-47) and Deputy Keeper (1947-54)) - Archives—natural accumulation by original creator important reasons for preservation - Firm definition in defining archives - Emphasis on “duty to the record” - Provenance is a firm concept for arrangement - Archival group is independent and complete within itself o Fonds within fonds - Rearrangement of papers is forbidden, if it is a must, only in own arrangement records - Finding aids are necessary for the archivist to control holdings Theodore R. Schellenberg - 1903-1970 - American - Wrote Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques (1956) - Deputy Examiner at National Archives (1935-1938) Chief of Agricultural Department Archives (1938-45) Records Officer of the Office of Price Administration (1950-56) Retried by 1963 - Archives—natural accumulation and reference and research equally vital reasons for preservation - Flexibility in defining archives - Emphasis on “usability” 5 - Criticize provenance for being inflexible - Not always possible to have a complete archival group—units or other groups may be interrelated o Fluidity in organizations - Original order should be observed but dependant on context and materials - Finding aids provides help to researcher Should respect des fonds be more flexible in today’s information landscape? WEEK 3: DIARIES & LETTERS—SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 DIARY— a document created by an individual who has maintained a regular, personal and contemporaneous record Characteristics: - Regularity o Non permanence o Thematic - Personal o Anonymity of the web? - Contemporaneous - Record th th 16 & 17 Century - Personal records - Gutenberg Bible - Protestantism - Access to Writing Technology Purpose - Scientific record - Business record - Unsolicited o Memoir o Religious o Creative Writing Forms - Calendars/Almanacs - Bound blank or lined pages - Audio and Video 6 - Photos - Blogs Critical of Online Diary - Unstable pages (changes/disappears) - Tangible evidence - Lack of permanence o Text/Editing o Hyperlinks Preservation Costs - Server - Format changes Personal Thoughts - Intimacy - Truthfulness - Audience Research and Analysis - Research value o Historical and political—dates and events o Social and anthropological—social issues and conditions o Biographical—behavior/life of a person o Professional—practices of a job (ex: doctors, nurses) o Linguistic—style of writing, terms and usage - Intrinsic value o Materiality o Visual—illustrations, engravings Considerations - Gender disparities - Subjectivity - Social class Analysis Methods - Graphology/Handwriting - Linguistic - Physical/Object - Narrative 7 o Identifies emotions via identification of writing devices - Content o Identifies patterns and themes in text o Specific characteristics via coding Object Analysis - Preparation o Background history of diaries and formats o Read entries and know writer - Analysis o Paper quality o Binding o Method of privacy (ex: locks, suede ties) o Decorative features o Embossing, gilding - Research with Secondary Sources o Social status o Production history of diaries Content Analysis Narrative Analysis - Preparation o Background history of diaries and purposes - Analysis o Structural o Thematic  Map out process and stages of diarist’s life  Identify characteristics and attribute to social group - Research with Secondary Sources o Time period o Social status o Social, cultural or historical practises LETTER—written communication between people or organizations that can take a variety of forms (ex: parchment, paper, e-mail) Brief History of Letter Writing - Classical antiquity o Letters were used for military messages via courier and relayed orally  Some letters authenticated an oral message 8 - Middle Ages o Commerce o Letter writing manuals emerged - Renaissance o Letter writing manuals were standard and retained some structure - 17 -18 century th o 18 century politeness o Letter writing and women - 19 century o Increase in population and merchant and middle class WEEK 5: PHOTGRAPHS & SCRAPBOOKS—OCTOBER 15, 2012 Recap: Letters - Most observers seem to agree that e-mail communications are less formal than their counterparts, the written or typed hard copy letter, that their content and style are more fluid, immediate, and more conversational-that they are, in fact, more like speaking than writing. Thus, the better parallel for e-mail, some maintain, is the telephone conversation rather than written letter - Is this item more similar to a letter or an e-mail? If this letter were written as an e-mail, what features would be the same, removed, replaced or changed? Recap: Diaries - The examination of the literary and rhetorical features of online diaries will rest on a study of their underlying structures and on a comparison with traditional self representational writing - Does the writing and expression of this diarist self-reflective? If this diary were a blog, what features would be the same, removed, replaced or changed? Recap: Copy Book vs. Letter Writing Manual - Copy Books o 1860s-1960s o Used to as models for writing for students o Exercises also include spelling, grammar, mathematics etc... - Letter Writing Manual th th o 17 -18 C o Social conventions for writers o Served as behavior manuals - Do one or both items hold value in studying writing in today’s writing practises? A Brief History of Photography &Forms - 16 to 18 Century: Camera Obscura - 1816-1826: Niepce 9 - Daguerreotypes Process—it was like holding up a mirror in the street, seeing the minutest details of your surroundings reflected in it, then carrying the mirror indoors and finding these details permanently imprinted - 1851-1870: Wet Plate Era - 1870-1900s: Dry Plate, Roll Film - 1900-Present: Colour Function - Personal memory keepsake - Business - Artistic - Documentary - Commodity Image & Artifact: The Photographic As Evidence in the Digital Age—Martha Sandweiss - Photographic intent o Provides context and meaning of subject - Meanings change depending on creator, subject and audience - Historians looks at “what is in the photograph, who took it and why?” - The creation of the photograph gives depth to the image - Truthfulness and digitization o Image correction Digital Photography - 2000s— Prices of cameras declined - 2004— 28 billion digital photos were produced - Photographic intent even more valuable in digital age - Self-preservation vs. Family presentation - Social culture of photographs SCRAPBOOKS—an information compilation of objects on a specific theme or subject, from various sources, mounted onto the leaves of a book Brief History of Scrapbooks - Early Greeks used the term koinoi topoi (common topics or common places) - Quintilian’s (AD 35-96) Instituto Oratorio provided instructions on preserving memory to students such as on tablets - Medieval pilgrims recorded memories through the collection of objects/souvenirs, some of them attached them to bibles th th - 13 th5 century: paper and printing = Album - 16 century: Vasari encouraged collecting art in albums - 17 century: fuller published A New Method of Making Common Place Books - 18 century: Granger published a biographical history of England with blank pages th th - Late 18 tth19 century: color printed materials were considered very valuable - Late 19 century: friendship albums (autographs, poetry and messages from friends) and common place books for education and family values 10 o Capitalism o Photography Function of Scrapbooks - Autobiographical or biographical - Aesthetic - Thematic collection - Contribute to a community/events - Research & Professional (Transfer of Knowledge) Scrapbook Forms - Blank book o Leather bound o Cloth bound o Paper - Commercial Forms - Ephemera - Newspaper or Magazine clippings - Advertisements - Photographs Types of Materials - Tokens of participation (ex: ticket) - Tokens of social or civic recognition (ex: certificate) - Tokens of social bonds and affiliation - Ritualized events of a person’s or group’s life cycle (ex: birthday party) The Future of Scrapbooks - Ephemera, photographs etc—digital born - Commonplace books = Twitter? - Scrapbooks = Facebook? Analysis - Scrapbooks can be studied like other artifacts of material culture...because they are object made or modified by humans consciously or unconsciously, directly or indirectly that reflect the belief patterns of individuals who made, commissioned, purchased, or used them, and, by extension, the belief patterns of the larger society of which they are a part. They offer evidence of the values, ideas, attitudes, and assumptions of the society in which they were produced Scrapbooks: Intrinsic Value & Material Culture—Juliana Kuipers - Cultural and historical information - Material literacy vital in understanding the item 11 - An effort to define and understand self, to express emotion, and offer comment on life and the world in a given time - Blank scrapbooks allowed creators to develop a story or narrative WEEK 7: ARCHIVAL OBJECTS AND ARTIFACTS—OCTOBER 29, 2012 Artifacts - Artifact can be physical or primary record created by humans that provide cultural or historical evidence - Preparation for studying an artifact: o Material literacy o Material culture Archival Objects - Can provide information and evidence o Objects can provide view into personal or professional life of person o Objects can provide cultural evidence of practices o Example: Magic Box was hidden under bed, objects were added - Challenges with Respect des fonds o Separation of objects—Respect des fonds o Maintaining organization of materials by the creator o Symbolic vs. Evidence - Preservation challenges with objects o Varied materials in construction—some materials deteriorate much faster (ex: moisture is main cause for deterioration for metal and wood objects) o Size of object and mixtures of materials o Objects within an object—Respect des fonds o Example: if items stayed in box, it would speed up deterioration. Multiple items in an enclosed box would risk damage Magic Box Title: Magic Box Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements note Description: Wooden box with sliding lid painted in orange and green: Indian River Citrus on top and Florida's Finest Citrus on the front and back. Strip of masking tape on top with Magic Box written in marker. Maker: Title Magic Box is in Wojnarowicz's handwriting. Where Made: n.p. Materials: pine box, nails, green and orange paint, masking tape. Dimensions: 8 x 17 x 12.625 inches - Fruit box (8 x 17 x 13 inches) - 59 objects: photographs, rock and stones, plastic toys, miniature statues, miniature globes, postcards, jewellery - Personal collection of objects in box by David Wojnarowicz University Of New Brunswick Model of Artifact Analysis 12 - Based on publications by E. McClung’s “Artifact Study: A Proposed Model” and Jules Prown’s work, “Mind in Matter: An Introduction to Material Culture Theory and Method” - Methodology developed by history professor and graduate students studying material history - Fleming’s Model: o Identification o Evaluation o Cultural Analysis o Interpretation - Prown’s Model: o Description o Deduction o Speculation - STEP 1: Observable Data o Physical attributes observed via senses  Materials used to construct artifact  The composition and construction of materials  Function and value of artifact - STEP 2: Comparative Data o Compare the artifact with other similar artifacts  Earlier or later designs  Give historical context - STEP 3: Supplementary Data o Research using other primary or secondary sources on material, construction, function, provenance and value - STEP 4: Conclusions o Summarize the observations, comparative data and supplementary data C.M.C. JOBBER Circa 1936-1955 Jobber Press compared to Chandler - Cultural evidence of printing practices - Comprised of multiple parts - Preservation challenges—different parts can deteriorate at different rates - Step 1: Observable Data o Material: metal, rubber rollers o Construction: foot powered treadle, rollers, ink table, platen, band, handle o Function: this tool is for printing o Provenance: initial on pedal and “Craftsmen Machinery Co. Boston Mass U.S.A” on side o Value: it can be assumed that the printing press was expensive to purchase for individuals but relatively inexpensive for printing shops - Step 2: Comparative Data o Material: mixture of wood and metal o Construction: foot powered treadle, roller, ink table, platen, band, handle o Function: For printing o Provenance: the make is different 13 o Value: Platen Jobbers are held at selected museums and archives, this may indicate that the press was common in a printing shop - Step 3: Supplementary Data o Material: materials were mainly metal but may have been in earlier versions o Construction: “...bed and platen, both flat, joined by hinge and brought together by th vertical movement. Hand levers and foot treadles persisted throughout the 19 century on smaller presses...” o Function: the Platen Jobber Press is used specifically for printing smaller items o Provenance: “in 1936 the Craftsmen Machinery Company of Dedham, Massachusetts, obtained the jigs for the 7 x 11 improved Pearl, making and selling them under the name CMC Jobber for many years.” o Value: “Around the 1850s, small jobbing platen presses cost a few hundred, and printing shops would own a variety to meet different demands.” - Step 4: Conclusions o The platen press, such as the CMC Jobber was a relatively affordable printing press for printing shops. The existence of Jobbers at selected museums and archives show that these presses were common for printing smaller items such as stationary etc. Casper et al. Explain that small jobbing presses were less expensive around the mid 1850s (a few hundred dollars) compared to cylinder machines, which cost $1000 to $4500. Digital Artifacts - Issues with digital born cultural artifacts o Intangibility  Categories like material and construction requires knowledge of source code— not visible to observer o Democratic nature  Increase of creators for medium—non-elitist  Difficult to track provenance o Personal archiving  Lack of preservation practises for digital born materials WEEK 8: RARE BOOK—NOVEMBER 5, 2012 - Uncommon Book o Lowest value grade o 60% of “more than ordinary books” o $10.00-$30.00 - Scarce Book o Medium value grade o 30% of “more than ordinary books” o $30.00-$100.00 - Rare Book o Highest of value grades o 10% of more than ordinary books o $100.00- highest sum ever paid 14 Characteristic of Rare Book - Market Value o Scarcity ± Significance ± Beauty ± Demand = Value (Rarity) o Bookman’s Price Index, Annual Register of Book Values, The Book Collector’s Handbook of Values - Dates - Intrinsic characteristics - Condition - Provenance - Edition - Subject - Totality of Collections - “One of a Kind A Brief History of Rare Books and Librarianship - 15 Century – Books production and distribution was not accessible to the masses o Bo
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