Wdw335 APRIL 1
Final-identical to midterm. 3 questions. Elaborate on the content. Provide the evidences, integration.
Read the material 5/6 questions.rdrom the midterm. Narrow topics. As much lecture material as
possible. 3 hours arguments. 23 Tuesday 2-5pm
Story of private policing,
Obvious –major transformations happened in many countries. Complex network of policing
Reform era-crime, the public police, crime experts
Changed over the last 40 years
State, not the only institution, performed by many agencies, outside of government-
Pluralization of policing. Policing services are offered by private companies and volunteering
organizations-ex. neighbourhood watch. State employs private companies, as a way of
performing social order functions. Military is not sufficient.
2012-private security personnel outnumbers public officers. Even though the gap is narrowing.
From 1996-to 2001, and then it changes again due to the 9/11. In 2012 88,000 personnel across
Canada comparing to 66,000 public police officers. Exponential growth of public security. Public
police remained constant relative to the population. In the US 3 times more private then public.
Individual communities use volunteer resources and people. Safe school act. –ontario. Condos-
private security personnel, and individuals who volunteer as well, ex. commercial private
companies, replacing the functions of public police. bloor/ York association.
Profiling individuals who board airplanes. By private entities, not all of it.
Ports, airports, private retail centers. All of the large commercial places. Even residential places
The culture of control-2005 book. Think of America as one big prison, everyone is behind the
bar, and being guarded by the guards, culture of control. Everyone is supervised. Data is
compiled until the data is needed. Security perimeter, surveillance, opportunity for private
Private policing is NOT A NEW THING what has changed is its growth
We are seeing a return to it. Private security have expanded their range of functions-have
become specialists. Have surpassed the state police.
This includes forensics. (was select training for public policing). Savvy at the investigation of
corporate fraud, private protecting against high tech corporate crimes. –reaching for private
What does it mean for public police? police is redefining, and finding new roles. Chronic issue
for the police. police are not really effective at controlling crime, not very efficient at preventing
crime. Police is being helped by technology. The nature of policing explains this. Very difficult to
prevent crime. Society is not the way as it was before, became very complex. Ex. retail owner-want to prevent people from stealing their product, but police is not very good
at preventing crime.
As a result of all of the changes, due to the explanation growth of private police, difference
between the institution of policing and the policing as a function ( an add on to the work of
Policing refers to the individual activities acting in a legal way to maintain security and social
Ex. bank tellers. Involved in the activity known as policing.
Initially they were there for asset protection, to assist public policing.
Ex ,shopping mall security guards, engaged in arrests, making searches. It was an exclusive right
of public policing. When Canadians experience policing, it is likely to be private policing, rather
than public policing. They have a preventative function, that one usually associates with public
police. function of private security, people or technology, is to reduce the risk of crime, by taking
preventive action. they are not there to enforce specific behaviour. Far more responsive to the
bottom line of safety. Can be fired for not doing good.
Is there a core function that can be