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Lecture

Psychology 46-339 Consciousness

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Department
Psychology
Course
46-339
Professor
Blais
Semester
Winter

Description
Unit
4
Lecture:
States
of
Consciousness
 
 
 Definition
 • Consciousness
is
our
awareness
of
various
cognitive
processes,
such
as
sleeping,
dreaming,
 concentrating
and
making
decisions.
 
 William
James
 • Consciousness
is
continuous
and
always
changing
 • Consciousness
is
a
selective
process
of
attending
to
certain
stimuli
 • Each
person's
stream‐of‐consciousness
is
unique
to
the
individual.
 
 Consciousness
Allows
 Consciousness
allows
the
individual
to:
 • restrict
the
input
of
overwhelming
sensory
information
 • attend
to
certain
stimuli
 • select
important
stimuli
for
effective
functioning
 • store
meaningful
information
for
present
or
future
use
 • consider
alternatives
to
real‐world
situations
 • project
imaginary
consequences
to
our
actions
or
thoughts
 
 Freud’s
Consciousness
 Three
levels
 • the
unconscious:
all
thoughts,
ideas
and
feelings
that
we
are
not
and
normally
cannot
become
 aware
of;
the
domain
of
the
id
 • the
preconscious:
thoughts,
ideas
and
feelings
that
were
are
not
consciously
aware
of
but
can
 be
readily
called
into
awareness
 • consciousness:
our
awareness
of
our
thoughts,
ideas
and
feelings
 
 Alternate
Forms
of
Consciousness
 • daydreaming:
one
of
the
most
common
alternate
states
of
consciousness
we
momentarily
 escape
the
demands
of
the
real
world;
this
can
occur
without
much
effort
 • fantasy:

an
alternate
consciousness
in
which
people
work
out
their
difficulties,
image
 alternative
scenarios
to
conflicts,
and
wonder
about
or
idealize
the
world
around
them
 • circadian
rhythms:
physiological
cycles
that
repeat
every
24
hours;
sleeping
and
dreaming
 are
the
most
common
of
these
 
 Sleep
and
Dream
Measurements
 • EEG:
the
electroencephalogram
measures
brain
wave
activity
 • EMG:
the
electromyogram
measures
muscle
activity
 
 Sleep
Cycles
 • Relaxation:

 o the
period
before
sleep
when
our
muscles
begin
to
relax
 o we
lose
concentration
and
alertness
of
our
environment
 • Stage
1:

 o lasts
for
about
10
minutes
 o dominated
by
theta
waves
of
3‐7
cycles
per
second
(CPS)
 • Stage
2:

 o similar
to
Stage
1
with
theta
wave
 o also
has
short
bursts
of
12‐16
CPS
sleep
spindles
 • Stage
3:

 o deep
sleep
composed
of
delta
waves
(1‐2
CPS)
20‐50%
of
the
time
 • Stage
4:

 o deep
sleep
dominated
by
delta
waves
 • REM
sleep:

 o rapid
eye
movement
sleep

 o where
our
most
vivid
dreams
occur
 
 REM
Sleep
and
Dreaming
 • Sleepers
awakened
during
REM
sleep
recount
the
most
vivid,
lifelike
dreams
 • Everyone
dreams
for
90‐120
minutes
per
night
 • Our
dreams
get
longer
in
length
as
the
night
progresses
and
REM
sleep
extends
 
 Freud
on
Dreams
 • Believed
that
all
dreams
are
wish
fulfillments
even
nightmares
 • Originate
in
our
unconscious
mind
which
is
governed
by
the
id,
the
child
within
us
 • Are
uncensored
expressions
of
our
thoughts,
feelings
and
motives
 • The
id
and
our
unconscious
operate
on
the
pleasure
principle,
gaining
pleasure
from
 expressing
these
thoughts
and
feelings
 
 Preconscious
and
Censorship
 • Freud
called
the
dream
content
of
the
unconscious
mind
the
latent
content
 • As
we
reach
preconsciousness,
our
mind
attempts
to
alter
the
dream
content
so
it
is
not
so
 damaging
to
our
ego,
our
self‐concept
 • In
the
preconscious,
a
censorship
system
alters
the
dream
content
using
several
techniques
 
 Censorship
Techniques
 • Condensation:
condensing
several
dream
elements
into
a
composite
of
one
dream
element
 • Symbolism:
using
other
objects
or
people
to
represent
something
else
 • Displacement:
changing
the
emphasis
or
focus
of
certain
dream
elements
onto
other,
more
 insignificant
elements
 
 Secondary
Revision
 • The
preconscious
operates
on
the
unpleasure
principle
in
which
we
gain
pleasure
through
 censoring
information
 • At
this
point,
the
dream
goes
through
secondary
revision
by
the
preconscious
 • As
we
reach
consciousness
and
recollect
our
dream,
we
are
remembering
what
Freud
calls
 the
manifest
content

 
 Dream
Work
and
Dream
Analysis
 • The
process
of
moving
from
the
latent
content
to
the
manifest
content
is
what
Freud
called
 the
dream
work
 • The
goal
of
dream
analysis
is
to
get
from
the
manifest
content
to
the
real
or
latent
content
of
 the
dream.
 

 Insomnia
 • Insomnia
is
characterized
by
difficulty
in
falling
asleep
or
remaining
asleep
throughout
the
 night
 • 30
million
insomniacs
 • The
cause
of
their
sleeping
disorder
is
unknown
 • Evidence
indicates
insomnia
is
more
prevalent
in
women
and
the
elderly
 • Attempts
to
control
insomnia
with
medication
usually
does
more
harm
than
good;
the
body
 builds
up
a
tolerance
to
the
medication
and
a
"rebound
effect"
when
the
medication
is
 discontinued
makes
the
insomnia
worse
 
 
 
 
 
 Sleep
Apnea
 • Sleep
apnea
is
a
disorder
characterized
by
breathing
difficulty
during
the
night
and
feelings
 of
exhaustion
during
the
day
 • The
episodes
usually
occur
in
short
periods
and
there
are
few
long
term
dangers
 • Approximately
38,000
cardiovascular
deaths
each
year
are
a
result
of
sleep
apnea
 • Those
most
susceptible
to
sleep
apnea
are
obese
males
during
middle
age
 • Also
suspected
as
a
cause
of
SIDS
 • Consequences
of
sleep
apnea
include
memory
loss,
hypertension,
heart
disease
and
stroke
 
 Narcolepsy
 • Narcolepsy
is
a
hereditary
sleep
disorder
characterized
by
sudden
nodding
off
during
the
day
 and
sudden
loss
of
muscle
tone
following
moments
of
emotional
excitement.
 • Can
be
dangerous
because
of
the
muscle
paralysis
that
accompanies
the
disorder
 • The
cause
of
narcolepsy
is
unknown
and
it
is
highly
resistant
to
treatment
 
 Night
Terrors
 • Night
terrors
or
sleep
terrors
affect
children
between
4‐12
years
old
 • Different
from
nightmares
 • Children
suffering
from
night
terrors
typically
sit
up
in
bed
and
begin
screaming
 • Can
be
awakened
from
nightmares
but
not
night
terrors
 • Usually
not
remembered
in
the
morning
 • Usually
do
not
occur
past
childhood
 
 Sleepwalking
 • Sleepwalking
involves
getting
out
of
bed
and
moving
around;
it
can
involve
engaging
in
 complex
behaviors
while
asleep
 • Sleepwalking
affects
up
to
17%
of
children,
usually
between
8‐12
years
old;
adult
prevalence
 is
approximately
4%
 • Treatment
includes
the
use
of
antidepressants
or
benzodiazepine
 • Hypnosis
has
also
helped
make
sleepwalking
less
likely
 
 Incubus
Attack
 • Incubus
attacks
are
characterized
by
sleep
paralysis
with
hypnagogic
hallucinations
 • 15%
to
40%
of
Americans
will
experience
at
least
one
episode;
recurrent
episodes
afflict
4%
 of
the
population
 • More
common
in
women
than
men,
and
among
younger
people
 • Treatment
involves
cognitive
behavior
therapy
 • The
goal
of
treatment
is
sleep
consolidation—remaining
asleep
throughout
the
night
without
 waking
up
 
 Sensory
Deprivation
 • Sensory
deprivation
involves
extreme
reduction
of
sensory
stimuli
 • Studied
at
McGill
University
in
Montreal
by
having
volunteers
spend
days
at
a
time
in
special
 sensory
deprivation
chambers
 • Effects
include:
 o hallucinations
 o impaired
judgment
 o irritability
 
 Meditation
 • Defined
as
various
methods
of
concentration,
reflection
or
focusing
of
thoughts
undertaken
 to
suppress
the
activity
of
the
sympathetic
nervous
system
 • Used
to
treat
certain
medical
problems
and
offers
physiological
benefits
 • Additional
benefits
include
emotional
and
spiritual
awareness,
well‐being
and
relaxation
 
 Types
of
Meditation
 • Zen
meditation
focuses
on
respiration
 • Sufism
involves
frenzied
dancing
and
prayer;
 • Transcendental
meditation
has
its
participants
intone
a
mantra
(special
sounds
selected
by
 the
TM
teacher)
 
 Hypnosis
 • A
trancelike
state
in
which
a
person
responds
readily
to
suggestions
 • Sigmund
Freud
studied
hypnosis
under
Jean
Martin
Charcot
i
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