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Chapter 7

46-333 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Narcolepsy, Hallucinogen, Barbiturate


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3330
Professor
Brown
Chapter
7

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States&of&Consciousness&
!
Definition&
Consciousness!is!our!awareness!of!various!cognitive!processes,!such!as!sleeping,!dreaming,!
concentrating!and!making!decisions.!
!
William&James&
Consciousness!is!continuous!and!always!changing!
Consciousness!is!a!selective!process!of!attending!to!certain!stimuli!
Each!person's!stream‐of‐consciousness!is!unique!to!the!individual.!
!
Consciousness&Allows&
Consciousness!allows!the!individual!to:!
restrict!the!input!of!overwhelming!sensory!information!
attend!to!certain!stimuli!
select!important!stimuli!for!effective!functioning!
store!meaningful!information!for!present!or!future!use!
consider!alternatives!to!real‐world!situations!
project!imaginary!consequences!to!our!actions!or!thoughts!
!
Freud’s&Consciousness&
Three!levels!
the+unconscious:!all!thoughts,!ideas!and!feelings!that!we!are!not!and!normally!cannot!become!
aware!of;!the!domain!of!the!id!
the+preconscious:!thoughts,!ideas!and!feelings!that!were!are!not!consciously!aware!of!but!can!
be!readily!called!into!awareness!
consciousness:!our!awareness!of!our!thoughts,!ideas!and!feelings!
!
Alternate&Forms&of&Consciousness&
daydreaming:!one!of!the!most!common!alternate!states!of!consciousness!we!momentarily!
escape!the!demands!of!the!real!world;!this!can!occur!without!much!effort!
fantasy:!!an!alternate!consciousness!in!which!people!work!out!their!difficulties,!image!
alternative!scenarios!to!conflicts,!and!wonder!about!or!idealize!the!world!around!them!
circadian+rhythms:!physiological!cycles!that!repeat!every!24!hours;!sleeping!and!dreaming!
are!the!most!common!of!these!
!
Sleep&and&Dream&Measurements&
EEG:!the!electroencephalogram!measures!brain!wave!activity!
EMG:!the!electromyogram!measures!muscle!activity!
&
Sleep&Cycles&
Relaxation:!!
the!period!before!sleep!when!our!muscles!begin!to!relax!
we!lose!concentration!and!alertness!of!our!environment!
Stage+1:!!
lasts!for!about!10!minutes!
dominated!by!theta!waves!of!3‐7!cycles!per!second!(CPS)!
!
Stage+2:!!
similar!to!Stage!1!with!theta!wave!
also!has!short!bursts!of!12‐16!CPS!sleep!spindles!
!
Stage+3:!!
deep!sleep!composed!of!delta!waves!(1‐2!CPS)!20‐50%!of!the!time!
+

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Stage+4:!!
deep!sleep!dominated!by!delta!waves!
!
REM+sleep:!!
rapid!eye!movement!sleep!!
where!our!most!vivid!dreams!occur!
!
REM&Sleep&and&Dreaming&
Sleepers!awakened!during!REM!sleep!recount!the!most!vivid,!lifelike!dreams!
Everyone!dreams!for!90‐120!minutes!per!night!
Our!dreams!get!longer!in!length!as!the!night!progresses!and!REM!sleep!extends!
!
Freud&on&Dreams&
Believed!that!all!dreams!are!wish!fulfillments!even!nightmares!
Originate!in!our!unconscious!mind!which!is!governed!by!the!id,!the!child!within!us!
Are!uncensored!expressions!of!our!thoughts,!feelings!and!motives!
The!id!and!our!unconscious!operate!on!the!pleasure!principle,!gaining!pleasure!from!
expressing!these!thoughts!and!feelings!
!
Preconscious&and&Censorship&
Freud!called!the!dream!content!of!the!unconscious!mind!the!latent+content!
As!we!reach!preconsciousness,!our!mind!attempts!to!alter!the!dream!content!so!it!is!not!so!
damaging!to!our!ego,!our!self‐concept!
In!the!preconscious,!a!censorship+system!alters!the!dream!content!using!several!techniques!
!
Censorship&Techniques&
Condensation:!condensing!several!dream!elements!into!a!composite!of!one!dream!element!
Symbolism:!using!other!objects!or!people!to!represent!something!else!
Displacement:!changing!the!emphasis!or!focus!of!certain!dream!elements!onto!other,!more!
insignificant!elements!
!
Secondary&Revision&
The!preconscious!operates!on!the!unpleasure+principle!in!which!we!gain!pleasure!through!
censoring!information!
At!this!point,!the!dream!goes!through!secondary+revision!by!the!preconscious!
As!we!reach!consciousness!and!recollect!our!dream,!we!are!remembering!what!Freud!calls!
the!manifest+content!!
!
Dream&Work&and&Dream&Analysis&
The!process!of!moving!from!the!latent!content!to!the!manifest!content!is!what!Freud!called!
the!dream+work!
The!goal!of!dream+analysis!is!to!get!from!the!manifest!content!to!the!real!or!latent!content!of!
the!dream.!
!!
Insomnia&
Insomnia!is!characterized!by!difficulty!in!falling!asleep!or!remaining!asleep!throughout!the!
night!
30!million!insomniacs!
The!cause!of!their!sleeping!disorder!is!unknown!
Evidence!indicates!insomnia!is!more!prevalent!in!women!and!the!elderly!
Attempts!to!control!insomnia!with!medication!usually!does!more!harm!than!good;!the!body!
builds!up!a!tolerance!to!the!medication!and!a!"rebound!effect"!when!the!medication!is!
discontinued!makes!the!insomnia!worse!
!
!
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