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Jane Leverick

Magic 17/10/2013 2:59:00 PM The World of Magic  Magic: ways in which a person can compel the supernatural to behave in certain ways  Sorcery: compelling the supernatural to behave in certain ways, usually with evil intent Who Does What?  Magician: a practitioner who specializes in controlling the supernatural through magic  Sorcerer: magician who specializes in antisocial, evil magic Magic and Religion Edward Tylor Primitive Cultures 1871 Magic is logical thinking based on false premises Magic is separate from religion Émile Durkheim Magic is for the individual, while religion is for the community Remember, he defined religion by its function of social solidarity. Religion Compatible Definition? Text definition: “compelling the supernatural to behave in certain ways.” James Frazer Magic is a pseudoscience Will be replaced by science From his work we get many of the „categories of magic‟ in your text (homeopathic, imitative, contagious, etc.) Tylor and Frazer share the evolutionary model of magic religion science Malinowski also saw magic as rational, a pseudoscience, but for him it was defined by its link with practical outcomes. Magic and Science Science A methodology for coming to an understanding of our world through objective observations, experimentation, and the development of hypotheses and theories Key Aspects of Science Hypothesis In science, a tentative statement based upon experimental and observational data that is subject to further study Theory In science, a framework for understanding that is supported by a large amount of consistent scientific data Empirical Observations Perceived through our senses Testable Conclusions The ability to develop new experiments and observations that will test the validity of a conclusion 
 The Function of Magic
 Used in times of danger and uncertainty Rules of Magic James Frazer  Evolutionist; did not make rules because he thought they would work; pseudo-science  Study of religion comes from an atheistic P.O.V (not stated) -> science + rationality + secularization theories o Going to the doctor is essentially a ritual -> a performance; doctor wears white, we wait in the waiting room, etc. The Golden Bough 1890 The Law of Sympathy Magic depends on the apparent association or agreement between things Law of Similarity  Things that are alike are the same; you are working with the thing itself -> things that are alike can be treated the same way and have the same impact; different kind of thinking than just thinking about symbol  Norse runes -> when an arrow is drawn on something, it isn‟t just a mark, it is a gateway for the God tier (not like writing your name on a piece of paper)  Tom Riddle‟s diary -> was Voldemort; sees the world as connected in complex ways Imitative Magic  Magic that is based on the Law of Similarity Image Magic  A form of homeopathic magic in which an image represents a living person or animal, which can be killed or injured through doing things to the image Law of Contagion  Things that were once in contact continue to be in contact after the physical connection is severed o For example, one‟s fingernail clippings, hair, bellybutton lint, menstrual blood, etc. are all items which are commonly used in spells to have control over another individual -> can also be less directly connected, does not have to be part of the body (all about the image; healing rituals when someone is not present) Contagious Magic  Magic that is based on the Law of Contagion, utilizing things that once were in physical contact with an individual Doctrine of signatures  Belief that physical structures found in nature, such as the shape of a plant are indicative of their potential use in healing. Origins in Mediaeval times; less etic than a lot of physical categories that we come up with  The doctrine of signatures treatise is not something known by indigenous shamans, but the principles behind it are not regarded as fanciful at all. Rather they are so important that they can save lives.  Shamans recognize the spiritual powers and qualities of plants in many ways: the colours of the flowers, their perfumes, the shape and form of their leaves, where they are growing and in what ways, the moods they evoke, and the wider geographical, cultural, or mythological landscapes they occupy; healers pay attention to, and come to understanding what a plant can do based on this Why Magic Works  Looking at practical things, not normally huge things; rationality, circular logic, etc.  The „Why Magic Works‟ section reduces „magic‟ to psychology, superstition and coincidence.  This is a standard scholarly practice….why? o Scientific models, neutral and objective + rationality -> we reduce everything until it is all just things to be studied o Can show a bias and not be taken seriously as an anthropologist Some Practitioner Definitions Dion Fortune  The art of changing consciousness at will; altered states to accomplish or achieve something  British, female -> wrote defensive magic; best known for her fictional works; 1880s Aleister Crowley  The art or science of causing change in conformity with will; compelling the supernatural
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