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November 13th notes.docx

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University of Winnipeg
Kelley Robinson

11/13/2013 3:57:00 PM Message: Using Fear  Yale attitude approach; considerations about the communicator -> are they attractive? An expert?  Then considerations of the message  Then considerations of the audience  Difference between manipulation, education, persuasion?  Janis and feshback (1953): brush your teeth or else! o People randomly exposed to 1 of 3 messages:  Neutral (no fear)  Moderate fear (gum disease, tooth decay)  High fear (“not brushing can lead to diseased gums, which lead to arthritic paralysis or blindness”)  NEUTRAL condition worked best!!! Why?  Fear control! (avoid message; will brushing your teeth really avoid blindness? Distance yourself because you cannot cope, there’s nothing you can do)  Dabs and leventhal: get a tetanus shot! o People randomly exposed to 1 of 3 messages  low fear (you should get a tetanus shot)  moderate fear (tetanus is not serious but painful)  high fear (tetanus will kill you)  HIGH FEAR condition worked best!!! Why?  Danger control! Take action (get the shot = free and clear)  DANGER control or FEAR control o Danger -> save yourself o Fear -> reduce anxiety  Is there a recommended action and can it prevent harm?  YES -> control danger (take action)  NO -> control fear (avoid message) Yale Attitude Change Approach  Source of communication  Nature of communication  Nature of audience Matching of message to attitude  Cognitive attitude, use rational arguments to persuade o Politically inclined, thinking rationally about the policies of country, you will be most responsive to someone who comes after you with policy arguments  Affective attitude, use emotional appeals o Maximize persuasion Cognitive VS. Affective  Cognitively-based o Utilitarian products  Appliances, car insurance  Ads on price/spec  Affectively-based o Social identity products  Perfume, designer products (ipod, macbook)  Ads on youth/sex Strategies of Persuasion  Common techniques to know and resist! o Foot-in-the-door  A modest request is followed by a larger one  Works due to changes in people’s self-perception (long-lasting) (mechanism) o Door-in-the-face  An outrageous initial request is followed by a more reasonable one  Works due to the reciprocity principle (short- lived) -> what you do for me, I do for you (mechanism)  Bait-and-switch  A very favourable deal is followed by additional demands after a commitment has been made  That’s-not-all!  The offer is improved before any reply is given  Cialdini et al. 1975: door in the face st o 1 request: volunteer in a youth detention centre? o 2 ndrequest: chaperone a school trip to the zoo?  Freedman and fraser 1966: foot in the door o 1 request: sign petition or not nd o 2 request: would you be willing to put up a large sign on your lawn – “drive carefully”  THESE PATTERNS OF RESUTLS ARE THE SAME AND YOU WILL GET THE SAME EFFECT BUT THE DIFFERENCE IS WHETHER THEY ARE SHORT OR LONG LIVED AND THE MECHANISMS USED Cognitive Dissonance  You eat a cupcake, but you also want to be healthy! Ways to reduce dissonance  Change attitude to be consistent with behaviour o You ate the cupcake, specified that being healthy is important to you  “I don’t really need to be on a diet” -> stress that it is less important  Add consonant cognitions o Thoughts that are consistent with the behaviour; how can you rethink what you’ve done to make it consistent with your values or goals  “chocolate cupcakes are very nutritious”  Change your perception of he behaviour o Make it so the behaviour isn’t as bad as you think it is  “I only ate 5 cupcakes today. Yesterday I ate 12.”  Reduce perceived choice o “I had no other choice, my friend made the cupcakes. I couldn’t give them away!” Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Festinger and carlsmith 1959 o Participants asked to perform dull task (moving pegs on a board); when finished they had to leave the experiment but had to tell the next participant that the last task was a lot of fun; at end of experiment they were either paid 20$ or 1$ ->
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