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Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221 Lecture Notes - Behavioral Modernity, Wilhelm Wundt, Experimental Psychology

Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 2221
Doug Hazlewood

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Psychology 1000, September 13, 2011- The Science of Behavior Notes
The brain structures involved in violence are also affected in empathy.
Research suggests that empathy may actually prevent aggression by actively inhibiting these circuits.
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. The term behavior refers to actions and response that
we can directly observe, whereas the term mind refers to internal states and processes such as thoughts and
feelings, that cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable measurable response.
Clinical Psychology- The study and treatment of mental disorders.
Cognitive Psychology- specializes in the study of mental processes. Cognitive psychologists examine such topics as:
consciousness, attention, memory, decision-making and problem solving.
Psycholinguistics- focuses on the psychology of language.
Biopsychology- focuses on biological. Biopsychologists examine how brain processes, genes, and hormones
influence our actions, thoughts and feelings.
Developmental Psychology- Examines human physical, psychological, and social development across the lifespan.
Experimental Psychology- focuses on such basic processes as learning, sensory systems, perception, and
motivational states. (Involves laboratory experiments, often with animals.)
Industrial Organizational (I/O) Psychology- Examines people’s behavior in the workplace.
Social Psychology- Examines people’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior pertaining to the social world: the world of
other people.
Scientific Study of behavior and mental illness
Scientific study of life processes and biological structures
Scientific study of cultural origins, evolution and variations
Scientific study of production, distribution and consumption
of goods and services
Scientific study of human social relations and systems
Application of scientific principles to designing machines,
structures and systems.
Computer Science
Scientific Study of information processing and manipulations
of data
Scientific study of health and the causes and treatment of
Psychology’s Scientific Approach
Science- is a process that involves systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions
and test beliefs about the natural world
Empirical Evidence- Evidence gained through experience and observation. This includes evidence from
manipulating or “tinkering around” with things and then observing what happens.
Observations need to be systematic- profound according to a system of rules or conditions. So that they will be as
objective and as precious as possible.
Primary goals of psychological sciences are to: describe, explain, predict and influence behavior and apply
psychological knowledge to enhance human welfare
Understanding Behavior: Some Pitfalls of Everyday Approaches
Our Personal experiences develop how we think.
Our experiences may be atypical
Misconceptions can result from faulty thinking:
o Mental shortcuts- we judge by appearance, rather than actually getting to know the person.
o We fail to consider alternative explanations for why a behavior has occurred and assume that one factor
has caused it.
o Once our beliefs are established, we fail to test them further, so we present a confirmation bias by paying
attention selectively.
Using Science To Minimize Everyday Pitfalls
False starts= occur in which other researchers later are unable to duplicate the original researchers’ findings.
In principle science is a self- correcting process
Scientific Progress= Evolution of knowledge.
Thinking Critically About Behavior
Critical thinking= taking an active role understanding the world around you rather than merely receiving
information. It also means evaluating the validity of something presented to you as fact. Ask yourself the following
questions when someone makes a claim:
o What exactly is the claim or assertion?
o Who is making the claim? Is the source credible and trustworthy?
o What’s the evidence? And how good is it?
o Are other explanations possible? Can I evaluate them?

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o What is the most appropriate conclusion?
Of Astrology and Asstrology: Potential Costs of Uncritical Thinking
Don’t believe things, unless they have scientific research, backing it up.
Psychology’s Goals
Four Central Goals:
o Describe how people and other animals behave
o To explain and understand the cause of these behaviors
o To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
o To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare.
The scientific goal understanding prediction and control are linked in the following manner: If we understand the
cause of a behavior and know when the casual factors are present or absent, then we should be able to successfully
predict when the behavior will occur. If we can control the cause then we should be able to control the behavior.
Psychology As A Basic And Applied Science
Basic research- the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake. The goal is to describe how people behave and to
identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behavior.
Applied research-, which is designed to solve specific practical problems. This often uses principles discovered
through basic research to solve practical problems.
Psychology’s Broad Scope: A Simple Framework
Level of Analysis- Behavior and its causes can be examined at the biological level, psychological level and
environmental level.
Mind Body And Nature- Nurture Interactions
Think positive and good hormones get released
Think negative, bad energy get released, making you hungrier.
Mind Body Interactions- the relations between mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily
systems. This focuses our attention the fascinating interplay between the psychological and biological level of
Big question= is our behavior shaped by nature or nurture?
Perspectives On Behavior
Perspectives- different ways of viewing people.
Psychology’s Intellectual Roots
Mind- body dualism= the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body.
If the mind is not composed of physical matter, how could it become aware of bodily sensations? And how could its
thoughts exert control over bodily functions?
Rene Descartes
o Mind and body interact through the pineal gland
o Claimed the mind was a spiritual, nonmaterial entity
Dualism implies that no amount of research on the physical body could ever hope to unravel the mysteries of the
non- physical mind.
Monism- a view that holds the mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity.
Monists= mental events correspond to physical events in the brain
Thomas Hobbes
o Monist view point
John Locke
o From the school of British Empiricism
o Held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically that is through the senses
According to empiricists, observation is more valid approach to knowledge than is pure reason, because reason is
can have potential errors.
Psychophysics- the study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical
Charles Darwin
o Theory of evolution
Early Schools: Structuralism And Functionalism
Emerged in 1879
Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental psychology laboratory- trained the first of psychologists.

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Structuralism- analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements
Study used the method of introspection (looking within) to study sensation. This left a mark for studying cognitive
Functionalism- psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure
William James
o Leader in functionalist movement
o Trained psychologists
Two modern day mental fields:
o Cognitive psychology- studies mental processes
o Evolutionary psychology- emphasizes the adaptivness of behavior
The Psychodynamic Perspective: The Forces Within
Psychodynamic Perspective- searches for the cause of behavior within the inner workings of our personality,
emphasizing the role of unconscious processes
Sigmund Freud developed the first and most influential psychodynamic theory
Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Great Challenge
Free Association- the patient expresses any thoughts that come to mind.
Came up with a theory and a form of psychotherapy called psychoanalysis- the analysis of internal and primary
unconsciousness psychological forces
Proposed that humans have powerful inborn sexual and aggressive drives, and because they are punished in
childhood, we develop anxiety, which makes us develop defense mechanisms.
Psychodynamic- Dynamic in nature
Modern Psychodynamic Theory
Continue to explore how unconscious and conscious aspects of personality influence behavior
Downplay the roles of sexuality and aggression, and focus on early relationships and how family and caregivers
shape their views.
The Behavioral Perspective: The Power of The Environment
Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions. From this perspective, our behavior is
jointly determined by habits learned from previous life experiences and by stimuli in our immediate environment.
Origins of The Behavioral Perspective
Roots on the philosophical school of British empiricism
John Locke
o Said that at birth the human mind is a Tabula Rasa- A “blank tablet” or “slate”- upon which experiences
are written.
o In this view human nature is shaped purely by the environment.
Ivan Pavlov
o Russian physiologist in early 1900’s
o Learning occurs when events are associated with each other.
o Pavlov found that dogs automatically learned to salivate to the sound of a new stimulus, such as a tone, if
that stimulus was repeatedly paired with food.
Edward Thorndike
o Examined how organisms learn through the consequences of their actions.
o According to him (1911) law of effect, responses followed by satisfying consequences become more
likely to recur, and those followed by unsatisfying consequences become less likely to recur. Thus,
learning is the key to understanding how an experience moulds behavior.
School of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behavior through learning , began to emerge in 1913.
John B. Watson
o Led new movement
o Strongly opposed the “mentalism” of the structuralist, functionalists and psychoanalysts.
o Believed in observable behavior, not unobservable inner consciousness.
o “Humans are products of their learning experiences”
Behaviorists sought to discover laws that govern learning.
Believed that the same basic principles of learning applied to all organisms
B.F Skinner
o 20th century behaviorist
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