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Lecture 45

Anatomy and Cell Biology 3309 Lecture Notes - Lecture 45: Stratified Squamous Epithelium, Ischemia, Microvillus


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 3309
Professor
Kem Rogers
Lecture
45

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Oviducts, Uterus, Vagina
Oviduct
Also called the uterine or fallopian tubes, lead into the uterus
Divided into 4 parts:
oInfundibulum – part closest to
the ovaries, funnel shaped, has
finger-like projection called
fimbriae that usher the oocyte
into the oviduct
oAmpulla – longest part of the
oviduct, 7-8cm long
oIsthmus – 4cm long
oIntramural segment – short
segment that leads into uterus,
0.6cm long
Can get ectopic pregnancy if the fimbriae are unsuccessful in bringing the oocyte
into the oviduct, so the sperm fertilize the oocyte in the ovary
Histologically
oThree layers: mucosa, muscularis, serosa
oMucosa – many folds into the lumen, makes the lumen look full
Epithelium with ciliated and secretory (non-ciliated) cells
Highly vascularized lamina propria
oMuscularis – smooth
muscle bundles
oDense CT with blood
vessels in it
oSerosa – thin layer of
epithelium around the
outside
As the oviduct progresses to
the uterus, the lumen gets less
full and starts to look more
like the uterus with a thick
muscularis layer
Oviduct Epithelium
Simple columnar epithelium
Non-ciliated (secretory) cells, also called peg cells
oProduce nutrient-rich fluid that will nourish the oocyte on its way to the
uterus
oHave microvilli to help secrete the fluid
Ciliated cells use cilia to sweep the fluid containing glycogen and other nutrients
towards the uterus
oAlso helps sweep the oocyte to the uterus
oHave basal bodies for cilia

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In LM, the cilia shrink so you can’t really see them fill up the lumen, but in EM
you can clearly see that the lumen is full of cilia
Uterus – Body
Provides an environment for
housing the developing embryo
until it is expelled
Divided into the body (upper
portion), and the cervix (lower
third)
Fundus is the part of the hollow
uterus that is farthest from the
opening
Made of 3 layers
oEndometrium (innermost)
Simple columnar epithelium, with lamina propria (stroma)
containing all the endometrial glands and secretions
Divided into the stratum functionalis and the stratum basalis
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Stratum functionalis – expands, highly vascularized, and sheds
during menstruation
Stratum basalis – regenerates the stratum functionalis after it has
been shed
oMyometrium (thick muscular layer, looks pink)
Thick muscular layer with 3 indistinct smooth muscle layers
No organization, just some longitudinal and transverse
sections of smooth muscle; elongated nuclei or round
centrally-located nuclei
During pregnancy, the myometrium enlarges/thickens in 2
ways to provide a strong contractile force
oHyperplasia – cells proliferate to increase #
oHypertrophy – cells increase to 10x their size
Myometrium contracts in response to oxytocin
oPerimetrium (outermost)
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