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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesSept 2211 The 5 majors divisions of the CNS are the cerebrum cerebellum diencephalon brainstem and spinal cord The cerebrum is made up of two cerebral hemispheres which make up most of the brain The diencephalon which consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus is located underneath the cerebral hemisphere The brainstem extends downward is consists of the midbrain pons and medulla oblongata which is continuous with the spinal cord The cerebellum is located behind the brain stem and below the occipital lobe As you get older you get more space in the folds of the brain due to loss of neurons The cerebrum is composed of three regions The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter It is a superficial cortical layer of gray matter containing neuronal cell bodies The cerebral white matter is a deeper layer of white matter containing fibres connecting cells bodies to other cortical areas and the rest of the brain There are lots of connections in and out of the brain and the white matter is responsible for this The deep gray matter contains the basal ganglia which is the deepest layer of large collections of neuronal cell bodies Ganglia are usually peripheral but are deep in the brain The cerebral hemispheres make up 83 of the total brain mass Sensory areas association areas and motor areas are located in the cortex or cerebral hemispheres Sensory areas are functions related to information coming in and motor areas are how you interact with your environment response Association areas involve perception and interpretation The cerebral hemispheres are responsible for cognitive function Gyri are ridges and sulci are grooves that provide an anatomical separation of the different areas The folding of the cerebral cortex is not random The folding makes it possible to have a large cortical surface area while having a small brain Fissures are deep sulci Some of the deeper sulci divide the cerebrum and each cerebral hemisphere into 5 lobes frontal parietal temporal occipital and insu
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