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Lecture

Biology.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 1001A
Professor
Tom Haffie

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12/5/2012 8:19:00 PM Biology: Exploring the Diversity of Life, 2nd Ed. i) Chapter 10, "Mendel Genes and Inheritance". Look at Sections 10.2 a,b & f. ii) Chapter 15, "Microevolution". Skim Section 16.1 but have good read of Section 16.2. Evolution: principles and processes. i) Chapter 13, pg 244-249. Look at sections "Population genetics and gene frequencies in populations"; "Populations, allele frequencies and the gene pool"; and "Measuring allele frequencies". ii) Depending on your high school Bio background, and your level of comfort with Hardy-Weinberg ratios after Lecture 12, you may also want to review pg 371-372 ("Basic research: using the Hardy-Weinberg principle") and Table 16.1 (pg 369) in Biology: EDL. Evolution: Principles and Processes. i) Chapter 15, sections "Selection and Mimicry" and "Selection and Industrial Melanism" (pg 295-298). ii) Chapter 13, "Additional Sources of Variation in Populations": pg 249 only. Biology: Exploring the Diversity of Life, 2nd Ed. i) Chapter 17, sections 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4 Evolution: principles and processes. i) Chapter 7, pg 126-134. Look at sections "Sex-linked genes and sexual reproduction"; "Sex determination"; "Sex Chromosomes"; "Autosomes and sex determination"; and "Environmentally induced sex determination" (including Boxes 7.3 and 7.4). (You do not need to read Fig 7.3 or Box 7.2.) Biology: Exploring the Diversity of Life. i) Chapter 39, pg 981-983. Look at sections "Mates as Resources"; and "Sexual selection". ii) Chapter 16, p 376 (section 16.3e) and 378 (Figure 16.13). iology: Exploring the Diversity of Life, 2nd Ed. Chapter 39, Sections 39.13 "Kin selection and Altruism" (including Figure 39.37) and 39.14 "Eusocial animals". Evolution: principles and processes. Page 308, "Species identification and species concepts" and "Morphological species". Page 313-316 (don't worry about Fig 16.2) "Biological species" Page 316-317 "Evolutionary species" Biology: Exploring the Diversity of Life, 2nd Ed. Chapter 18, up to and including sections 18.3 ("Why it matters; The significance of similarities and differences; Systematic biology, an overview; The Linnaean system of classification"). Evolution: Principles and Processes. Chapter 18, pg 345-353. 12/5/2012 8:19:00 PM Lecture 12: strategy to distinguish between a phenotype that results from codominance relative to incomplete dominance characteristics that identify a pleiotropic allele conditions under which Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium is possible in a population. general pathway of eukaryotic membrane protein production. general physiology of skin/hair pigmentation. characterisitics of dominant alleles. which allele in a heterozygote is dominant, given the biochemical mechanism of action of allele products. factors that affect how allele frequencies change over time in a population. allele frequencies (p and q), given genotypic frequencies. function of various MC1R alleles. Lecture 13: Meaning of deme, population, allele frequency, genotype frequency Allele frequencies in a population, given the genotype frequencies Genotype frequencies in the next generation, given the allele frequencies and assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium whether a population is in HWE, given observed genotype or phenotype frequencies effect of selection on changes in allele frequency relative vs absolute fitness how to calculate relative fitness how to quantify strength of selection relationship between dominance/recessiveness of alleles and response to selection. effect of heterozygote advantage on genetic variation why the amount of genetic variation in a population is important different types of selection (stabilizing, directional) and their effect on genetic variation Lecture 14: difference between Batesian and Mullerian mimicry how the population frequency of a mimic phenotype may affect its fitness why the same phenotype may be selected against in one environment but have a selective advantage in a different environment meaning of genetic load and genetic death effect of various types of selection on amount of variation in a population. examples of stabilizing, directional, disruptive. reasons why directional selection does not remove all genetic variation from a population. characteristics, and examples, of frequency dependent selection. reasons why all living things are not perfectly adapted to their environment. effect of genetic drift on allele frequencies within a population, particularly in the case of bottlenecks etc. effect of genetic drift on variations between populations. mechanism that explain why mutation is NOT directed toward the needs of the organism. general fitness effects of mutations. why most mutations that affect fitness are harmful. effect of gene flow on allele frequencies. characteristics of adaptive vs. non-adaptive mechanisms affecting allele frequency. how various evolutionary forces reinforce or oppose one another Lecture 15: how Darwin's theory of evolution differed from that proposed by Lamarck meaning of catastrophism, gradualism, uniformitarianism difference between relative versus absolute ages of rock formations and the fossils they contain principle behind radiometric dating of rock strata why most living things never form fossils types of non-random mating effect of non-random mating on HWE and on evolution characteristics of a scientific theory components of the theory of evolution evidence for "descent with modification" examples of homology and why they support the idea of evolution examples of vestigial traits and why they support the idea of evolution role of fossil record as evidence for evolution Lecture 16: Relationship between sexual reproduction and genetic variation Different modes of genetic sex determination Different modes of environmental sex determination Meaning of haplodiploid Meaning of hermaphrodite, and whether hermaphroditism is generally rare or common in plants relationships among sexual reproduction, meiosis and genetic variability mechanisms of asexual reproduction examples and predictions of size-advantage model of sex change distribution of sexual reproduction among all life forms, and particularly among animals costs of sexual reproduction cost of meiosis cost of sons "Muller's Ratchet" mutational load explanation for advantage of sexual reproduction "Ruby in the Rubbish" hypothesis explanation for advantage of sexual reproduction combination of beneficial mutations for advantage of sexual reproduction relationship between extinction rate and sexual reproduction Lecture 17: Meaning of monogamy, polygamy, polygyny, polyandry, promiscuity, lek Conditions favouring the evolution of
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