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Tom Haffie (1,170)
Lecture 2

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Independent Study Outcomes 1. The general mechanisms by which vaccines protect against diseases. -create a cache of weapons that you can deploy when needed -modify a pathogen, to help you fend off something you don't have natural immunity to 2. Why developing a vaccine against HIV is relatively challenging, compared to other diseases. -increased genetic variation, mutates furiously, hides itself in your genome 3. Why people are encouraged to get a flu vaccine each year (as opposed to one time only). -many different strains of flu -vaccine protects you against a few of the most common predicted strands each year Lecture Outcomes 1) General global distribution of HIV infections. -almost 60% of HIV infected individuals live in South Sub-Saharan Africa 2) General temporal trends in HIV infection rates. -number of people living with HIV continue to increase -death is beginning to plateau due to anti-viral therapies 3) Factors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has been developed for HIV/AIDS. -HIV is a retrovirus, that uses reverse transcriptase, instead of transcription -in reverse transcriptase, RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA, and inserted into the host cell's chromosomes -unlike transcription, reverse-transcription has no proof-reading mechanism, which makes mutations inevitable -with more mutations, it become more difficult to target the virus, since it's genetic variability is so great 4) Reasons why viruses are not considered “alive”. -no nucleus -no metabolic/physiological mechanisms, uses host cell machinery to sustain it's metabolic functions 5) Reasons why anti-viral drug therapies often have serious side effects. -virus' need to use the host cell machinery to sustain it's metabolic/physiological functions -in order to target the virus, you often have to target the host cell, as well, which leads to collateral damage to the host cell, hence there are serious side effects 6) Major steps in life cycle of HIV -virion attaches to the nuclear envelope of host cell -enters cell though endocy
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