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Lecture 24.docx

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Chapter 47 (Lecture 24) Ecosystem Ecology • An ecological discipline that explores the cycling of nutrients and the flow of energy between the biotic components of an ecological community and the abiotic environment • Community- all of the organisms living in some defined place • Ecosystem- A biotic community and its abiotic environment functioning as a system • Ecosystems are open, not closed systems o Energy inputs and outputs o Nutrient inputs and outputs 2 important processes in Ecosystems: Production and Consumption • 4 major functional components o Producers (autotrophs) o Consumers (heterotrophs and includes decomposers) o Energy o Nutrients Where does the energy come from? • Light energy harvested by photoautotrophs • Chemical energy harvested by chemoautotrophs Nutrients • Chemical elements or compounds needed for growth or reproduction o Organic (carbon containing) or inorganic o Micronutrients (needed in trace amounts i.e. iron) and macronutrients (need a lot of i.e. carbon, nitrogen) • Nutrient Sources o Geological sources (mineral soil) o Atmospheric Sources o Oceans o Decomposition and nutrient cycling Energy Flows up the Food Web • Energy flows from source through primary producers through consumers and decomposers o Ecological inefficiency: some energy lost at each transfer between levels o Energy constantly being replaced from outside the ecosystem Ecological Efficiency <100% • Harvesting Effi
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