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Lecture 4

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Fundamentals of BiochemistryProtein 141 The two fields biochemistry and genetics used to be completely apartMolecular biology has bridged the gapNow if you are a biochemist its easy to find the gene that encodes the protein and if you are a geneticist its easy to take a gene sequence and synthesize the proteinProteins are one of the 4 main biochemical families o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Nucleic acids o LipidsProteins are importantstructural and functional molecules of a cellIf you can understand proteins you understand biology basicallyMacromoleculesbig moleculesPolymers a category of big molecules a long chain of nearly identical smaller molecules joined in a long chain Amino Acid Proteins and peptides are composed of amino acidsAmino acids are monomerssmaller building block moleculeDifferent side chains called R groups giving different properties Same Small organic molecules with both carboxyl acid and amino base groups peptide backbone 3 categories based on the chemistry of the R group o PolarO or OH in R group o ChargedCharges o Nonpolar hydrophobic Dont work well in human bodies because of water CHPepsin protein digesting enzyme in the stomach cuts protein at very specific places Trypsin Protein digesting enzyme in the small intestine cuts protein at very specific places Amino Acid Structure
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