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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1201A
Professor
Richard Gardiner
Semester
Fall

Description
Group cohesion Attracting to group Result of all forces acting on member to remain in the group (if bad  group leave) Resistance of the group to disruptive forces (don’t follow outside  influence so don’t break apart) Dynamic process reflected in tendency to attract members, stick  together and remain united in pursuit of goals/ satisfaction of member Focus on task and social Fundamental characteristics • Multidimensional­ number reason cause group to stay together • Dynamic­ can change over time (task to liking people) • Instrumental­ group stick together for task purpose • Affective­ group stick together for social purpose Model of cohesion Environmental/ situational factor­ leadership factor­ team factor­ personal  factor Environmental/situational factor • Contracts (eligibility, transfer • Geography (physical function proximity, same area) • Normative/ social pressure on quitter • Organizational orientation (goals sex maturity, age • Group size moderately sized group are best (task plus social) Personal factors • Variable (cognitive, behaviors) • Similarity (sex personality) • Shared attitude plus motives • Adherence (social loafing) • Satisfaction­ task plus social aspects • Circular relation between cohesion, satisfaction plus performance (in  a way a link feeds on another) Leadership factors • Task oriental behaviors (clarifying group goals and member roles) • Communication (feedback, reinforcement, rewards, appreciation) • Decision making style • Coach/athlete compatibility Team factor • Performance success over a long period (generally produces cohesion  not the other way) • Shared experience especially negative (failure, threat) • Team stability (norms, roles, acceptance, status) • Communication (clarity) • Collective efficiency Consequences Group outcomes • Improved performance  • Group stability • Improved communication plus interaction • Group goal setting • Group satisfaction Concern over self­deception by group­overvalues overestimate own ability  plus accomplishments and undervalue opponents Individual outcomes • Improve personal states • Increased role clarity plus acceptance • Group goal acceptance and conformity • Increased individual satisfaction • Shared attribution of responsibility for unfavorable outcomes Measuring group cohesion Group interaction­ task, social Individual attraction to group­ task, social Creates four dimension of cohesion Separate task and social sub divisions of group integration (perception of the  group as a totality) and individual attraction to the group (each members  attraction to the group) 1. Group integration­task (out team is united in trying to reach our goal) 2. Group integration­ social (our team likes to hang 
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