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Lecture 4

2012.02.11 - Bio 1202 Lecture 4 Review Notes.docx

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Biology 1202B
Gardiner/ Murphy

Lecture 4  Light is a form of energy that travels in waves o Photons – particles of light that have a fixed quantity of energy  Amount of energy is inversely proportional to their wavelength  Shorter wavelength = more energy  Autotrophic – self feeding organisms that do not consume other organisms as an energy source o Light is their energy source (Ex: photoautotroph)  Heterotrophic – eat other organisms as an energy source  Pigments in Eukaryotes: o Chlorophylls (a, b, c, d) – green o Carotenoids (carotene) – red o Xanthophyll’s – orange/yellow  Absorption spectrum: o Spectrophotometer - measures the % absorption of a particular pigment at a particular wavelength of light  Action spectrum: o Plots some measure of photosynthetic rate against wavelength of light o Not identical to absorption spectrum of chlorophyll since other pigments are present  Tissue Localization: o Any green tissue – such as leaves, stems, roots, compartments  Placement and location of leaves for maximum efficiency  Light-Dependent Reactions: also called light reactions and photochemical reactions o These occur in the thylakoid membranes and need light to occur o Produce energy  Nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NADPH) – involved in many biochemical redox processes and serves as an electron acceptor in the enzymatic removal of hydrogen ions from specific substrates  Light Harvesting Complexes: o Reaction centre pigments – chlorophyll a680and P700 o Accessory pigments – chlorophyll b, c, d, etc. and carotenoids  Pass energy to the reaction centre o Antenna pigments – 300 chlorophyll a (1 reaction centre chlorophyll a) and other accessory pigments  Content varies according to specific organisms  In the thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll is organized along with proteins and smaller organic molecules into photosystems o Photosystems act like a light-gathering “antenna complex” – a few hundred chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoid molecules  Antenna molecule absorbs a photon, and is transmitted from molecule to
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