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Lecture 17

Lecture 17 - Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

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Biology 2581B
Jim Karagiannis

LECTURE 16 EUKARYOTIC GENE REGULATIONKey Concepts1Basal transcription2Enhancers3Activatorsrepressors4Transcription factor binding5Chromatin remodelingComplexities in Eukaryotic Gene RegulationDifferent cell types display vastly different morphologies functions behaviorsNeurons and fibroblasts for example have different structures and functions but they both have the same underlying genetic codeYet all the information required to give rise to a fully developed adult is present in a single differentiated somatic cellExample cloned sheep DollyoIn this experiment adult sheep was taken and fibroblast cell was isolatedoEgg from a different sheep was taken and all genetic material was removedoFibroblast cells were induced which generated an embryo and implanted into a foster mother and this gave rise to a fully normal functional adultoImportant to note that all genetic information that was necessary to give rise to fully functional adult was present in that single fibroblast cellHow is this possibleGenes are differentially regulated across tissuesThe expression levels of these genes vary widely across different tissuesGene expression can change as a function of cell typeEach rectangle represents a different gene in this graph in this case they are involved in glucose metabolismColor of rectangle indicates level of expression bluelow expression yellowhigh expressionExpression level changes according to cell typeThe expression levels of genes can vary across time as wellGenes can be differentially regulated during developmentThe expression levels of 4028 genes in wildtype Drosophila melanogaster were assayed Expression was examined during 66 sequential time periods beginning at fertilization and spanning the embryonic larval and pupal periods and the first 30 days of adulthoodEembryo Llarvae Ppupae AadultEukaryotesDevelopmentally complex multicellular systemsNeed to coordinate gene expressionoIn various tissuesoAt various times in cell cycledevelopmentoIn response to external signalsGenome size is greater than in prokaryotesThere are 3 RNA polymerases
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