Biology 2581B Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Point Mutation, Mutation Rate, Pseudogene
What"s in the noncoding? regulatory elements repeats. Mobile elements pseudo genes foreign dna: or a mix of all these. Methylation (of adenines or cytosines) transcribed splicing. Examples real examples of genome architectural diversity cox1 diversity genetic modifications nonstandard codes so in summary huge diversity in genome architecture. Molecular level only way to alter genome architecture is through mutations lots of different types and categories. Underlying dna maintenance machinery finicky and capricious mutations often efficient mutations rare so mutations alter genomes at the molecular level, but evolution is a population level process. Population level evolution happens within populations, not individuals. Beneficial mutations have good chance of being fixed through positive selection. Deleterious mutations are likely to get lost, through purifying selection: in small populations natural selection is inefficient, a lot of random genetic drift. Adaptive: mutations fixed through natural selection: skeletal dna hypothesis. Differences in genome size effect the size of the nucleus + cell.