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Evo genetics- lecture 1.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 3466B
Professor
Marc- Andre Lachance
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture101092014DarwinecologistAmateurbiologistatfirstwenttouniversitytookallthebirdcoursesBecameoneofthebestnaturalistsMostofhispublicationswereinjournalnatureBecameworldexpertonbarnaclesEventuallyproducedrevolutionarytheorydecentwithmodificationAlllivingbeingscanbetracedbacktosinglecommonancestorNostrongevidencebackthenwasbasedonresemblanceConsequencesofthisisthatthemoredivergenttwospeciesarethemoredifftheyaregeneticallyandphenotypicallyBasedonthattheorywecanmakepredictionsandcreatehypothesisWhenDarwincameupwiththisideahehadnocluehowinheritancehappensproblemFordecentwithmodificationandnaturalselectiontotakeplacetheremustbeconservationofgeneticvarianceExTwomiceonewildtypeblackandtheotherisalbinoIfyoumatethemcanrecoverwhitemiceandbackmiceintheprogenyifyoumatethemenoughtimesMendelcontributedtothisMendelcontemporaryofDarwinKneweachotherButnevermergedintellectuallyMergertookplaceIn20thcenturyaftertheywerebothdeadDarwindidnothaveagenetictheoryHerecognizedthatifyoucannotfindawayofdetermininghowcharacteristicsareconservedthentheimportantelementfordetermininghistheoryhasproblemsHisconceptofhowinheritanceworkedNooneunderstoodMendelspaperfor40yearsDarwinhadacopybutdidntreaditEveryoneignoredituntil1900sDarwinmadeattempttocomeupwithowngenetictheoryCalleditpangenesisIdeawasduringthelifetimeofanorganismthereareparticlesthatflowthroughbloodstreamthatallowscellstocommunicateTheycontaininfothatistransmittedtonextgenerationTheywerejustfloatingparticlesExhandwouldhavehandpangenesThesewouldfindtheirwaytothereproductivecellsThatwouldgointonextgenerationProblemtheseparticleswouldblendWouldlosethegeneticvarianceDarwinsfourpostulatesmoreprogenythanenvironmentcanhandlesomesurvivetoreproduceandsomedontthatistheprincipleofnaturalselectionSomeofthevariationsareinheritedPangenesiscouldntexplainhowtheywereinheritedbecauseofdilutionDarwinwasinfluencedbyLamarkoneofthemostprominentFrenchbiologistduringtherevolutionInventedthewordBiologyInventedtheterminvertebrateNoticedsomeanimalsdonthavebackboneCameupwithideaaboutevolutionthatspeciesevolveonefromtheotherDarwinacknowledgedthatinhiswritingsLamarckhadalotofthingswronginheritanceofacquiredcharacteristicsExGiraffesStretchingneckandreachingtogetfoodandasaresulttheneckgetslongerGetalongerneckduringtheirlifethroughuseanddisuseandtheacquiredcharacteristicsareinheritedAccordingtohimindividualsevolveAccordingtoustheyDONOTpopulationsandspeciesdoEvolutionisaGROUPphenomenonnotindividualCouldntprovidemechanismbywhichnaturalselectionworksDarwinPartofthesolutionhappenedwithGaltononeofthefoundersofscientificracismFindingdifferencesbetweenracesfindingwhichisthebestthoughtEnglishThispartofhisworkisnotvalidWealsoknowthatheprovidedsomeofthefirstcluesthatblendinganddilutiondoesnthappenDidbloodtransfusionsusingrabbitsDidbloodtypingandfoundifyoumixbloodofrabbitsitdoesntchangetheircharacteristicNoevidenceforthegemmulestheunitsofinheritanceinpangenesistheunitofinformationHedisprovedthatmajorcontributiontorealscienceAlsoprovidedadvantageinstatisticsstatisticianWallacewasanaturalistlikeDarwinTravelledandcollectedbugsandsoldtorichpeopleinBritainNotusinganyDNAmethodsdescribedover1600speciesinhislifetimeNotaswellknownandrespectedasDarwinbecausehewasfrommiddlelowerclassDarwinwasatrustkidDarwinwasaselfmademanLinnaeus100yearsbeforetheseguyshadgraduatesthatwentandcollectedplantsandhalfdidntsurvivesidenoteWallacecameupwithnaturalselectionundersimilarcircumstancesasDarwinWasinNewGuineaandbylookingatsimilarityanddifferentiationbetweenspeciesgradualcameupwithideaofnaturalselectioncocreditedwiththeideaWeismannGermanmicroscopistCameupwithideathatnucleiincellshadsomethingtodowithinheritanceEndoftheth19centuryBecomingbetteratusingmicroscopesKnowsduringdivisionnucleusdividesGeneticmaterialcontainedinnucleiAlsodoesexperimentsthatshowthatinheritanceofacquiredcharacteristicsshouldbeabandonedComesupwithinsteadthegermplasmtheoryShowingcelldivisionpictureinnotessignificanttoinheritanceanddevelopmentDarkcellsareeggandspermDuringdivisionthereproductivecellsbecomemorenumerousWheninrightenvironmenttheyalsogiverisetosomaticcellsSomainGreekmeansbodyThereproductivecellshavehistoryoftheirownfunctionistotransmitinfothroughtimeandprovidetheinfotothesomaticcellsWearevehiclesforreproductivecellsWhatsreallyhappeningisreproductivecellsarehavinglifeoftheirownTheyareparasitizingusasvehicleforownsurvivalTheyareselfreplicatingwillbeevolvingbecauseofthisGermlineisindependentfromthesomaticlineSomaticlinehasNOinfluenceonthegermlineGotridofDarwinGemmulesdontexistMustcomeupwithsomethingdifferentfortheoryofnaturalselectionDNARNAproteinTheparallelbetweenthatandthegermplasmtheoryisthatDNAbecomesDNAetcDNAbecomesRNAwhichbecomesproteinProteindoesntinfluenceRNARNAdoesntinfluenceDNAAsageneralrulecentraldogmaofmolecularbiologymimicsthissystemThissystemlooksatitatlevelofnucleiAndDNARNAproteinslooksatthemolecularlevelsomaticcellsdontinfluencegermcellsFromWeismannweknowthatperhapsnucleihavesomethingtodowithreproductionIdeaofchromosomesnotbroughtupuntil10yearslaterwithMorganfuturelecturesHugodeVriesoneofthepeoplewhorediscoveredMendelSentreprinttoByrinkDeVrieswasgoingaroundtalkingaboutbinomialtheoremComingupwithideaofthebasicelementsofgeneticsAbouttopublishpaperByrinkgavehimpaperthatheshouldreadbyMendelMendelalreadyfigureditout40yearsagoAtthispointanumberofpeoplelikeDarwinandhistheoryMostpeopledidntthinkthatButtheywereDarwiniansandcameupwithdogmaDevrieswasinstrumentalinformulatingtheMendeliandogmamutationandNotselectionisthemajordrivingforceofevolutionTodayweknowbothareequallyimportantMendelandDarwinDeVriesinventedtowordmutationMeansthatduringthetransmissionofgeneticcharacteristicaccidentshappenandtheparticlescanundergochangesWilliamBatesonfanofMendelthoughtDarwinwasfullofitFanofdevriesandcontributorstounderstandinggeneticsWrotebookMendelprinciplesofheredityInventedwordssegregationallelehomoheterof1f2SaidmutationsareveryimportantcausethingstochangeandnewspeciestoappearNaturalselectionishandwavingTwofirmlyestablishedschoolsofthoughtDarwiniansnaturalselectionisimportantandactsmostlyoncontinuousvariationsizeintensitynumberoffeaturesthingsthatvaryquantitativelyandcanbeexaminedstatisticallyMendeliansmostofthevariationthatmattersisdiscontinuousvariationExmouseiseitherwhiteorblackMendeliansputaccentonmutationDarwiniansputaccentonnaturalselectionDarwiniansandthebiometriciansoftentreatedassamegroupBestknownnameisWeismannintheDarandPearsoninthebioPearsonRatioofthecovariancenormalizedtovariancesMeasureofhowtwosetsofdataarerelatedtoeachotherrheagreedwithDarwinthatevolutionisgradualandactsmostlyatlevelofcontinuousvariationMendeliansledmostlybyBatesmanandDeVriestheyweregeneticistgavemoreweighttomutationWhowasrightBothinmanyrespectsArrivingatgoodknowledgeofallofthistooktimeLamarckiansuseanddisuseandacquiredcharacteristicsAtthesametimethatthemendeliansanddarwinianswerehavingargumentsaboutwhichismostimportantthelamarkiansweremostlyphilosophersFrenchphilosopherswholikesideasbutdidntlikemechanismsofitKnewDarwinwasrightbutwantedtomakethingswerepalatabletopeopleProposedideacalledorthogenesisOrthorightcorrectorstraightOrthogonalrightangle90degreesOrthodoxrightreligionOrthogenesisindistinctlythereissomekindofforcethatdirectsevolutionEvolutionmaygethelpfrommutationandnaturalselectionbutitsbeingpulledtoperfectionbyamysteriousforceHologenesisholomeanswholeBlendofbothorthogenesisandsciencemutationandnaturalselectionLamarkiansuseanddisuseDarwinhimselfwasaLamarkianThoughtthatthechangesinheritedhappeninindividualslifetimeandthechangeinthesomatictissuecanbeinheritedBelievedintheinheritanceofacquiredcharacteristicsButthoughtthiswasminorcomponentDarwinwassayingthatinapopulationthereisvariationwearealldifferentSomeofthatvariationisinheritablecanbepassedoncanbeconserveddoesntblendInalargepopthatcompetesforresourcessomeindividualshavetraitsthatmakethemmoreadaptedhigherprobofreproducingifthatsystemofdifferentialreproductionhappensforgenerationswillbecumulativechangesinpopsPopswilladaptWontalwaysmoveinsamedirectionbcenvironmentchangesEvolutionarygene
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