Biology 1002B Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Atp Synthase

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Biology Lecture 9 (Feb. 6, 2016)
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
Location, products, distribution in nature and purpose of pathways such as glycolysis, CA cycle,
respiratory electron transport etc.
- Glycolysis: In the cytosol.
- Pyruvate Oxidation - Citric Acid Cycle: In the matrix
- Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation: Inner mitochondrial membrane
Relative potential energy of various intermediate compounds (eg. glucose vs. pyruvate vs. CO2)
- Glycolysis doesn’t lose carbon as CO2. The products are 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 C
each) which have less free energy than glycolysis. Phosphoenolpyruvate is converted to
pyruvate where it loses a phosphate to create ATP. This is substrate level phosphorylation
(no oxygen is required). Glycolysis doesn’t require oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria simply
uses glycolysis. You don’t get much ATP but you get enough.
Link between glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle
- Pyruvate oxidation occurs to go from pyruvate (in the cytosol) to go into the matrix. In
eukaryotes it occurs in the matrix, and aerobic respiration in bacteria (don’t have
mitochondria) occurs in the cytosol as well. CO2 is dumped from the pyruvate because
there is no free energy left in there decarboxylation. The transition is called the
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
- Dehydrogenase oxidizes the pyruvate. Takes the electron from the pyruvate to create
NADH. Add Coenzyme A to create Acetyl CoA (2 carbons). The whole thing as a whole
is called a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Relative location of electron transport chain components relative to mitochondrial membrane,
matrix, intermembrane space
- ETC is in the inner mitochondrial membrane
- No more carbon at this stage; all the energy is in ATP, NADH, and FADH2
- Purpose of ETC is to extract the energy from NADH and FADH2
o NADH produces 3 ATP; FADH2 produces 2
Relative location of electron transport chain components relative to mitochondrial membrane,
matrix, intermembrane space
- Happens in the mitochondrial membrane between the matrix and the intermembrane
space
- ATP synthase in ETC and ATP synthase in the light reactions are homologous. They
share evolutionary ancestry.
- Protons are pumped into the intermembrane space where an electrochemical gradient is
created.
- Complex I has 40 proteins in it, so these complexes are very complicated and there are
defects in these sometimes and if they are mild you will have a disease.
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Document Summary

Location, products, distribution in nature and purpose of pathways such as glycolysis, ca cycle, respiratory electron transport etc. Pyruvate oxidation - citric acid cycle: in the matrix. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation: inner mitochondrial membrane. Relative potential energy of various intermediate compounds (eg. glucose vs. pyruvate vs. co2) The products are 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 c each) which have less free energy than glycolysis. Phosphoenolpyruvate is converted to pyruvate where it loses a phosphate to create atp. This is substrate level phosphorylation (no oxygen is required). You don"t get much atp but you get enough. Pyruvate oxidation occurs to go from pyruvate (in the cytosol) to go into the matrix. In eukaryotes it occurs in the matrix, and aerobic respiration in bacteria (don"t have mitochondria) occurs in the cytosol as well. Co2 is dumped from the pyruvate because there is no free energy left in there decarboxylation. The transition is called the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

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