Biology 1002B Lecture Notes - Coding Strand, Stem-Loop, Tata Box

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Gene Structure & Expression
Lots proteins of ETS & Calvin Cycle are coded by genes that are no longer in
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts genome is expressed in a prokaryotic environment
o Organelle DNA is circular
o Some genes on circular genome are transcribed and translated inside
chloroplasts
Elysia
o Nuclear genome
o Chloroplast genome
o Mitochondrion genome
All life is similar
mRNA
o Great deal of secondary structure that contains information its not a ribbon
o Can pair with itself gives it secondary & tertiary structure
o Structure and sequence both contain information
o Riboswitch (secondary structure) can influence translation
Complimentary Base Pairing
Transcription
mRNA & rRNA (SD Box)
mRNA & mRNA
tRNA & tRNA
Ribosomal RNA (orange) base pairs with itself
Enzymatic activity lies in the RNA of ribosomes
Protein
o Product of gene expression
o Ex. DNA polymerase
Gene codes for more than protein
o Ex. RNA no translation
Transcription
Initiation
Site of polymerase attachment called promoter
Polymerase read template from 3’ to 5’
Transcription factors help eukaryotic RNA polymerase recognize promoter sequences
RNA polymerase binds to TATA box
DNA strands unwind
Polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at start point
Elongation
Template strand = DNA that codes for mRNA
Coding strand = Other strand
Polymerase moves downstream, unwinding DNA and elongating
transcript 5 3
No primer required
Continues to untwist double helix, exposing about 10 to 20 DNA
bases at a time for pairing with RNA nucleotides
In wake of transcription, DNA strands re-form double helix
mRNA
tRNA
Ribosomal RNA
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Document Summary

Lots proteins of ets & calvin cycle are coded by genes that are no longer in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts genome is expressed in a prokaryotic environment: organelle dna is circular, some genes on circular genome are transcribed and translated inside chloroplasts. Elysia: nuclear genome, chloroplast genome, mitochondrion genome. Ribosomal rna: great deal of secondary structure that contains information its not a ribbon, can pair with itself gives it secondary & tertiary structure, structure and sequence both contain information, riboswitch (secondary structure) can influence translation. Ribosomal rna (orange) base pairs with itself. Enzymatic activity lies in the rna of ribosomes. Protein: product of gene expression, ex. Gene codes for more than protein: ex. Polymerase read template from 3" to 5". Transcription factors help eukaryotic rna polymerase recognize promoter sequences. Polymerase initiates rna synthesis at start point. Template strand = dna that codes for mrna. Polymerase moves downstream, unwinding dna and elongating transcript 5 3 .

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