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Lecture 3

Biology 1002B Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Antibody, Protein Structure, Photon


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1002B
Professor
Tom Haffie
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3: Protein structure and function
Where is there an antenna around the photosystem but there is no antenna on photoreceptor
o The eye does not need to harvest the energy, photoreceptors wants to form an image,
want photons to hit everywhere, so we can see the surroundings, to pick up on all the
possible wavelengths to see
o Photosystem want to harvest energy (getting photon), using it for growth and
maintenance
Biological functions:
o Biochemistry Genetics
o Protein <- molecular biology -> Gene
Protein abundance: points of control
What controls amount of protein in a cell
o Transcription: copying of DNA to mRNA, can regulate the expression of specific genes
that codes for specific protein
Transcript abundance, how much of the corresponding protein mRNA in the cell
The mRNA can break down, so it also depends on how long they can stay in
contact, some might decay in minutes some in hours
Transcript abundance depends on the Rate of transcription and the rate of
decay is to figure out how many transcript of a protein one cell have
o Translation: mRNA to proteins can regulate translation. mRNA, ribosomes, protein
o Protein abundance:
Measuring transcript abundance
o Isolate total RNA from cell or tissue samples
o Run the sample on a gel electrophoresis
Dominant RNA in our cells is rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
mRNA are very little compared to rRNA
o transfer the electrophoresis onto a membrane,
How do we see the mRNA that we want to see? We use a probe
o we expose the membrane to radioactive gene-specific “probe
probe is single stranded DNA, it will hybridize with the mRNA on the membrane
we made the probe, so we know the sequences, high efficiency, will bind with
membrane mRNA very effectively
northern blot: is after the probe has bind with the mRNA on the membrane
o Why don’t we see the mRNA for the E. coli
o Western blot:
Using antibodies
Antibodies have high specificity for proteins
It is easier to do than northern blot, more cost efficient
Heat shock response
o Chlamydomonas cells shifted from growth temperature of 24 degree C to 40 degree C
o Transcript abundance of hsp1
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