Biology 1225 Lecture Notes - Probiotic, Mucous Membrane, Starch

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1 Feb 2013
Often interact with enzymes to speed up metabolic reactions
Most are essential (must be absorbed from food)
Only vitamin D (skin) and vitamin K (gut bacteria) are non-essential (produced by body)
Fat soluble
o Vitamin A: vision, growth, reproduction
o Vitamin D: regulates calcium levels, bone formation
o Vitamin K: blood clotting
Water soluble
o Vitamin C: antioxidant, wound healing, synthesis of adrenaline, bone formation
o Vitamin B12 and folic acid: cell division (low levels cause anaemia)
o Vitamins A and D (fat soluble)
Cannot be excreted from body
Only small amounts are needed, rest stored within liver
Excessive intake from supplements can cause liver damage
o Vitamin C (and other water soluble vitamins)
Not stored - regular intake required for good health
Excess excreted in urine
o In the UK, supplements are only useful for
Pregnant women (growth)
Elderly (less efficient absorption, less appetite)
Mineral Ions
Sodium: water balance (maintain osmotic pressure)
Chloride: maintain osmotic pressure, required for acid production in stomach
Potassium: abnormal levels cause abnormal heart rhythms
Calcium: bones and teeth, regulation of heartbeat, muscle contraction, blood clotting,
nerve and brain function (important for synapses)
Phosphate: nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, bones and teeth
Iron: haemoglobin (low levels cause anaemia) and myoglobin formation
Healthy diet
EAT fruit and vegetables
o 5 portions of fruit each day
o Contain fibres (prevent constipation)
o Contain vitamins (antioxidants)
MORE starch than sugar
o Starch (pasta, rice, brown bread) releases glucose more slowly
o Food with a high GI (food rich in sugar) is linked to obesity
RESTRICT salt and fats
o Heart disease is caused by a diet
High in fat - increases cholesterol
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