Biology 1225 Lecture Notes - Probiotic, Mucous Membrane, Starch

19 views3 pages
1 Feb 2013
Department
Professor
Vitamins
Often interact with enzymes to speed up metabolic reactions
Most are essential (must be absorbed from food)
Only vitamin D (skin) and vitamin K (gut bacteria) are non-essential (produced by body)
Fat soluble
o Vitamin A: vision, growth, reproduction
o Vitamin D: regulates calcium levels, bone formation
o Vitamin K: blood clotting
Water soluble
o Vitamin C: antioxidant, wound healing, synthesis of adrenaline, bone formation
o Vitamin B12 and folic acid: cell division (low levels cause anaemia)
Supplements
o Vitamins A and D (fat soluble)
Cannot be excreted from body
Only small amounts are needed, rest stored within liver
Excessive intake from supplements can cause liver damage
o Vitamin C (and other water soluble vitamins)
Not stored - regular intake required for good health
Excess excreted in urine
o In the UK, supplements are only useful for
Pregnant women (growth)
Elderly (less efficient absorption, less appetite)
Mineral Ions
Sodium: water balance (maintain osmotic pressure)
Chloride: maintain osmotic pressure, required for acid production in stomach
Potassium: abnormal levels cause abnormal heart rhythms
Calcium: bones and teeth, regulation of heartbeat, muscle contraction, blood clotting,
nerve and brain function (important for synapses)
Phosphate: nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, bones and teeth
Iron: haemoglobin (low levels cause anaemia) and myoglobin formation
Healthy diet
EAT fruit and vegetables
o 5 portions of fruit each day
o Contain fibres (prevent constipation)
o Contain vitamins (antioxidants)
MORE starch than sugar
o Starch (pasta, rice, brown bread) releases glucose more slowly
o Food with a high GI (food rich in sugar) is linked to obesity
RESTRICT salt and fats
o Heart disease is caused by a diet
High in fat - increases cholesterol
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 3 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.