Bio 3475 Lec 3.docx

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Bio 3465 Lec 3 (Chapter 2, 3) 10/1/2010 10:31:00 AM
Chapter 2 Supplement
- beetle larvae all climb up a plant together and form a ball with their legs
sticking up and wait for the vector: a male bee that lives in the ground the
bee will carry the larvae around
- overlap of the bees
- small beetle larvae are producing a chemical odour to attract the male
bees to attempt to copulate (mimicry) they smelled like a woman
- beetles all moved around together
- this is a pure lie they imitate a female for their own gain
Spider webs the build them in particular places where there are drafts
(movements of air) so there is potential for food
- they may end up with things they don’t like. How do you cope with this?
- contact infochemical from spiders when they inject their food caught in
their web
Response of the tropical spider
- releasing unwanted (toxic insects) from their nests without even coming
into contact with them to prevent poisoning themselves and to prevent
butterflies (for eg) to break the web, decreasing the efficacy of the web
- spiders can distinguish bw the quality of the food
Spiders are liars too
- female bolas spiders have long legs with glue at the ends
- all the spiders that these females caught were male moths
- bolas emit odours (moth sex pheromone) that attracts male moths for sex
- emit it when they are hunting and when they know male moths are around
- moth caught in the beginning of the night is different from the moth caught
in the end of the night the spider is a lying in more than one language…
one sp is around early in the night; another is around later in the
night
what is this spider doing?
LISTEN sp A- catch sp A; sp B- catch sp B; sp A&B pheromones
catch species A but not B (B does not like pheromone A but A DN
CARE)
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so at the beg of the night, it produces pheromone A&B… when there
is a lot of A odour they catch A; then at the end, it produces LESS
pheromone A and catch B
o so they are changing the amounts of A&B pheromones and
not the compound
- CALLED CHEMICAL MIMICRY
- how do the immature spiders catch prey? They produce a similar or same
sex pheromone to mimic male flies in their ecosystem. They open their
mouths and eat small flies
- male spiders behave like immatures and do not have bolas also produce
a similar or same sex pheromone to mimic male flies in their ecosystem
(males are MUCH smaller than the females) so they have a different food
source than females
- diff species of spiders attract diff sp of flies makes sense bc they have to
biosynthesize!
Hummingbird there are mite carriers that live in flowers and move by
using a hummingbird
- when the hummingbird comes to get nectar, the mites run up and go into
its nose. At another flower, mites decide if they jump off or not based on the
odours of the flowers but they have to decide VERY QUICKLY
LISTEN !
What happens if you give mites sugar water or a non-host?
- some select the unknown nonhost
- while they have learned the odour they will respond to
- wont choose a non-host bc they will die
- mites can tell if a nose is vacant or full by the odours emitted by mites
present in the nose
Starfish (L. polaris)
- feed on urchins and walk along in the water
- they walk across the current and try to pick up an odour…increasing the
probability of finding food
Hungry there is a significant direction
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- weak current with prey starfish are more spread out and less concnd
- strong current with prey - starfish are concentrated in 1 direction
Well-fed there is no significant direction
Rates of displacement - starved ones are walking fast with an odour
- when the current picks up they walk even faster
Cleptoparasitism stealing food from a predator
- the whelks surround a starfish while it is feeding
- starfish are very messy eaters; they break it up with their mouths and
everything floats around them
- starfish produce chemicals when they walk (pseudopods) release
odours saying they are predators
- when they are feeding they do not release these odours; and the food
releases chemical odour that attracts other whelks (that eat other whelks
too?) when whelks are hungry they move towards the food source and
when they are full they move away from the food source
- TRADEOFF: avg size of whelk where predator was present was larger
tended to move near the predator
- Whelks produce mucus (nasty to predators) big ones gob them more
- they also have a foot that help them do somersaults a big one will do
this better than a small whelk
- little starfish eat little whelks
- large starfish eat larger whelks
- hungry starfish will go more to the medium size than large; but the
small ones don’t take the risk at all size of predator affects what the
whelks choose (LSTEN) STEAL FROM PREDATORS DEPENDING On…
Monitor lizards
- forked tongue
- rate of tongue flicks vary depending on food available
- depends on how you run the experiment if they bite into it and then
take it away, they tongue flick A LOT MORE (LOOK AT GRAPHS AND
UNDERSTAND OR LISTEN)
- they are hardwired and know how to detect the odour of a food source
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