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Nov 4th - Persian Wars, Delian League, Democracy & Laws.docx

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 1000
Professor
Alexis Dolphin
Semester
Fall

Description
th Nov 4  /2013 Read: pp. 52­57, 179­204 The Persian Wars 490 & 480-478 BCE The Classical Period- begins with the Persian Wars Assyrians - “Bandit-Kings”: Destroyed in 612 BCE - Assyrians did not have an empire - Content to stay in their part of the world - Sometimes went to neighboring countries and looted them, demanded respect and grain - Like the grass hoppers inABug’s Life - Terrifying for others around them - Others voluntarily submitted to them Rise of the Persians (559-522) *End ofArchaicAge - Part of the coalition that destroyed theAssyrians - Cyrus (550-530) o Monotheistic - Zoroastrianism o Their religion o Darkness vs. Light o Good vs. Evil - Conquest of Lydia (546) o Kingdom inAsia Minor o Demanded to be recognized as their ruler - True empire o Unusual for this time period o Network of roads o Provinces o Set up armies in occupied land o Fixed rate taxes o Enforced laws in regions o Controlling all the regions from India, Iran, Turkey, Egypt etc. o Some people (Many of the Greeks) welcomed this, many rejected it  Demeaning for a Polis to have to answer to someone else o ConqueredAsia minor - Many Greeks who got kicked out of their Polis went to live in Persia th Nov 4  /2013 Darius and Empire (521-486) - Tried to systematically organize the empire o Provinces, Roads, capital city, governors, etc - Hippias the Peisistratid o Athenian Tyrant who was kicked out and fled to Persia (one of the 2 sons) o Important b/c he gives advice to Darius The Ionian Revolt (499-494) - Aristagoras, Tyrant of Miletus (in Ionia) o Backed by the Persian King o Borrow money from him o Unable to pay him back o Decided instead of going to jail, try to inspire the Greeks in Ionia to revolt o Succeeded in getting the Greek Ionians to revolt - Athens sends 20 ships: 3000 Men o Athenians trained the Ionian’s o Successful sneak attack o Also sent ambassadors to Sparta but they wouldn’t send their soldiers that far away from home - Burning of Sardis o Also looted o Symbolic gesture by the Greeks  Stating they’re no long under Persian rule st 1 Persian Invasion (490) - Persian King wants revenge from Ionian revolt - He gave the Greeks a chance (Athens/Sparta) o Asked them to submit to Persian rule  Hand over some earth and water, some sort of symbolic gesture o Athenians and Sparta declined o This sparked war - Sailed straight across from Asia Minor to Mainland Greece o Ancient Boats weren’t water proof o Only could last a few days before they drained them th Nov 4  /2013 o They had to stop in Greek communities along the way to drain them  Note: not all Greeks were apposed to being Persian - 25,000 Persians o Huge fighting force - Finally landed in the Polis ofAthens (not the city) o Landed in Marathon o Small village o About 18 miles away from the city ofAthens - Athenians knew they were coming and needed help o Sparta said they couldn’t because they had a festival o Only one other Polis helped them o 9,600 Athenians vs. 25,000 Persians o Athenians won by an improvised battle strategy o 192 Athenians died, 6400 Persians - Battle at Marathon becomes a defining moment for theAthenians o Inspired civilizations forever after o They wrote vastly about the event o Theme of small group vs. a large group fighting for their home land, freedom etc. - Greeks made a mound at the “turning point” of the battle to recognize their victory and fallen soldiers - Persians fled back to their ships and sailed to the city ofAthens and thought they could beat the Greek foot soldiers toAthens o They didn’t o TheAthenians beat them back - The Spartans came after their festival and told them congratulations Themistocles - Athenian - Fought at Marathon - Leading Politician - Athens found a silver mine in their Polis shortly after the battle - It belonged to the entire polis - HUGE silver mine - Athenians got together and decided what to do with the silver - Themistocles convinced them to use it to build a first class navy and harbor for the ships o Convinced Persians were coming back th Nov 4  /2013 o Reminded them that some Greeks helped them along the way o Three level ships, each with orrs in it  180 Rowers o Trained on them so that the Athenians could do things with ships no one else could o Engaged in sophisticated in maneuvers The Great Persian Invasion: 480 - 500,000 men and 1,000 warships o Drawn from all over Persian empire o Historians from the time say 1,000,000 people but that’s not possible o Best bet is 300,000 – 500,000 - Dissension among the Poleis - The King had a slave only to remind him to “not forget about the Athenians” 3 times a day lol - King built a circular wall with on entrance and one exit o Had soldiers squeeze themselves in and then he counted them and it turned out to be 1,200 o He had another group come in and it was another 1,200 and he did this over and over to count them - Half of Greek communities let the Persians through o At harbours etc o Most that sided with Persians were in Northern Greece, Ionia, Islands etc o The Peloponnesian League did not side with them  Mainland Greece  Sparta +Allies, andAthens o Sparta wanted Athens to come to them so they weren’t spread out o Athens said no they had to defend their land o Sparta made their stance at Thermopylae Thermopylae - There were mountains and a small entrance - The idea was that Persians would have to funnel through this entrance so they couldn’t surround them - Thermopylae &Artemision o Had to stop the Persians th Nov 4  /2013 o Persians approached the Spartans and were not successful o Some Greeks told the Persians they could go through the mountains and attack from the other side  Sparta ordered a retreat o Someone had to stay and hold out Thermopylae so the rest of the Greeks had time to retreat  300 Spartans and a King agreed to defend the narrow opening  Held off the Persians for 4 days  All but 2 were killed eventually except they were suicidal after  Spartan shining moment  Earned admiration from the rest of Greece • This is what they were bread for o Persian fleet them sails down toAthens and burned it to the ground  Athenians watch it from their boats  Lots of elders were still their o Persians then sailed down around the Polis ofAthens towards the Peloponnese where all the Greeks were stationed - Battle of Salamis o Themistocles switched sides in the middle of the night and then brought the Persians to Salamis in a harbour  He said he did this on purpose because he knew that the Athenians would win  Others say he meant to betray Greece but he got lucky that the Athenians won o Athenians basically kicked their ass because of the great ships they had from the silver mine o Persian King took the remaining ships back to Persia but left the soldiers there o Now only the Persian land force left  The King told the soliders they could try and cut a deal withAthens  The King said Greece would become a Persian province then Athens would become the capital city  Athenians denied and then kicked the Persians ass on land th Nov 4  /2013  Then, theAthenians took their boats to Ionia and further damaged the Persian fleet that wa
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