-granulation, tiny small beads of gold that are attached to something.
-King tut may have died in a chariot race (based on bruising on his body, looks like wheel
marks). Killed in battle or knocked off his chariot in a race
-around 5000 years old- origins in Sumer, and used by Etruscans. For granulation you heat very
high until the metals melt together. To make the granules you snip small pieces of gold wire until
you make poppy seed like granules
-to attach granules to objects, you adhere it to an object made of gold, you heat them
ferociously in fire and then they will attach to each other
-deplition gilding – making surface made of gold that isn’t really gold (used in Mezo America and
South America – before Europeans came around). Theirs was low karat gold because it was a
mixture of different metals. The gold rises up on the surface.
-Essentially, depletion gilding produces a high-purity gold surface by removing everything that is
not gold. More specifically, other metals are etched away from the surface of an object
composed of a gold alloy by the use of acids or salts, often in combination with heat. Of course,
since no gold is actually added, only an object made of an alloy that already contains at least
some gold can be depletion gilded
-tissue gilding is a three step process (three layers) – gold, silver (removed second) and copper
-sintering – uses platinum – 1600C melting point. Gold forms glue around platinum (native
platinum). You chop the platinum up, mix it with gold dust (melt everything). The gold forms a
glue around the pieces of platinum, you polish the whole thing and you get an interesting
looking surface. It looks like pieces of platinum linked together with gold. This was done in
-more blacksmiths in roman times didn’t have smelters. they worked with glues from specialized
smelting outfits or from scrap metal. Their tools were made of working with red hot metal
-a lot of ancient tools survived to this day (they had hammers, tongs and punches)
-tshirt with only one shoulder, the sleeve was on the working shoulder
-the fuel they used was charcoal and some Minoan places they used coal (Roman Britain
-in working with metal they used an anvil. At the top of it there was a hole punch sort of thing (if
you wanted to put holes in pieces of work). Square with rounded edges
-some new anvils are beak shaped –this was used for doing curved work
-there were various tongs to hold things together and make sure they didn’t slide around.
-held the metal in tongs, took it out of furnace and worked it with a hammer -to make it extra hot they took it out of the furnace put it in water and that will turn the surface
into crystals. This surface gets very hard. There has to a be a balance between strong and
-the beak anvil is uncommon (comes much later)
-Interesting thing Roman blacksmiths did – armour shield was defensive and offensive. It was
made of a kind of plywood. Many layers are glued together and the grains glued ran in opposite
directions. The middle had a big metal cross or a spike (like in Germany). It was rectangular
(just below neck and just above knees).
-soldiers often didn’t wear leg guards (they are called greaves). Greaves were a sign of rank
and centurions often wore greaves. He didn’t carry a shield or fight in battle.
-1 century helmets changed (ears were covered) and armour advanced. These came around
the time as improved armour. They were made of steel