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September 12 2013.docx

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
Classical Studies 2700A/B
Professor
Les Murison
Semester
Fall

Description
September 12 2013 -Asia Minor or Asua the name started in the bronze age which was the eastern part of Russia -Ionian Crete and Minoan Civilization th -cave was discovered in 20 century in cave. Cave was called Franchi. Occupied to about 20,000-3,000 bc. This gives us a timeline of Minoan civilization. -20,000-6,000 occupation was seasonal-therefore hunter gatherers -after that it was occupied permanently -circledes – circle of island in the Aegean -ionian is a Persian word -where crete people came from? -Crete is not near any main land -people got to Crete in 6100 bc possibly on boats (people did not evolve on the island le duh) -there is evidence of domesticated animals and agriculture -radio carbon dating -radio carbon dating 1950s university of Chicago -men got to about 5 ft 3 – population was small and they possibly came from asia minor -northern Greece came from northern European countries- northern are bigger and rougher. They worshiped sky gods and male virility. While southerners (Mediterranean) worships the earth and the rain. Soft shit -stone battle axes have been found in northern Greece -southerners were culturally more advanced. Metal working was also introduced to the island of Crete -copper was used before bronze (ie Bronze Age) -lots of threes. In Crete the culture was based on the Knossos. In legend it was ruled over by a king named Minos. Minos was probably more a title like pharaoh -English archaeologist excavated Knossos at beginning of 20 century (Arthur Evans) -he uncovered a civilization called Minoan culture. The culture is divided in three stages early middle and late -Greek age lasted from 3000-1125 bc September 12 2013 -Greek name from Greece is Hellas. Helladic culture runs from 2600-1100 bc Palace complex-large cultivation of structures. More than just royal residence, its a storage centre and has a somewhat anthill attitude towards society. SO there is a ruler in the palace and everyone works for the ruler of this palace. SO everyone grows stuff and makes stuff brings it into the palace and from there it is rationed. Therefore it’s a residence, storage place and shopping centre with kiosks that sell pots and pans etc. artisans. 5 of these places have been discovered on the island -beginning of late Minoan period there is a rule (after 1700bc) -some area (Santorini) seemed to be under cretian domination possible knossian -thalassocracy-The term thalassocracy (from Greek language θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "to rule", giving θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "rule of the sea") refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. - to have thalassocracy records need to be kept and a system of writing. There needed to be a way to show between good grain bad grain etc. therefore notations are needed. This writing is found on Minoan crete (earliest period). This writing is called syllabary. Its not with letters but it uses but it uses syllables and uses vowels. Simple syllable with a vowel like Ba Bo Be etc. -Knossos- was Ko No So -Minoan civilization does begin to alter; it wasn’t a gradual process of a fall but an abrupt event. Like the volcano on the island of Thira Year 1628 bc a volcano erupted – biggest in recorded history. Created title waves around the world and created 5 inch surge in the English channel -created spectacular sunset worldwide for several years -destroyed certain parts of Crete because of the wind direction. The Minoan civilization didn’t end abruptly after the eruption but very shortly after it -Main centre was Mycenae-these people created a similar palace as the Cretans -at this point Mycenaean’s get Clan Tombs and royal tombs which were discovered in the 1870’s which were discovered by a German archaeologist named Schliemann (memorized dickens davit Copperfield) -Heinrich Schliemann excavated shaft graves - a type of burial structure formed from a deep and narrow shaft sunk into natural rock. Burials were then placed at the bottom. -Tholos tombs were shaped like bells and they become markers of Mycenaean culture. Beehive tomb. Maybe for royalty. September 12 2013 -trade routes are into southern Italy and areas of north Africa, Egypt and the middle east. So trade is all developing and they are trading -Mycenaean’s took over Knossos in 1560 bc and took over the writing system and made linear script and wrote left to right and spaces or word dividers were left in text (between symbols). -mainlanders adapted this to the text -1953 English cryptographer that it was an early form of greek (linear B) -linear B-undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language, as is the later Cypriot syllabary, which also recorded Greek -the Minoans used linear script A and Linear Script B was used by the Mycenaean’s -palace Knossos was sacked and was destroyed in 1480 -this area became unsettle-maybe movement of people, bad weather, or climactic event and this leads to the collapse of the Bronze Age -it is thought maybe that more people from the north were coming down in mainland Greece and ruling, these people were called Dorian’s -after this point it got quiet in Greece and thus we have the dark ages -the palace structure in mainland Greece and Crete collapsed and it is believed that peasants revolted -at the same time the romans were kicked out of Britain -The art of writing was lost, trade routes were broken, and trade was disrupted -mainland Greece eventually gets crowded because clans begin to form and people needed to find a place to live so they went to Aegean to Asia Minor from c. 1000BC -archaic is the “old beginning“ -when Greeks are trading in Asia Minor mainland they discover that people over there have invented the alphabet or the Hebrew alphabet -linear b has 80 signs -Greeks began to settle in Asia Minor northern Africa and Libya and other cities began to establish trading ports -During this period the Greeks develop a new type of organization it was a city a fortified one with a large surrounding territory and they called this a Polis which is a Greek city state - ACROPOLIS September 12 2013 -DORIANS was amalgamation of 4 villages and it was a called an oligarchy (an elite few running a city) and ethnically exclusive and so were the Dorian’s -DORIANS were worried about the sea because they were surrounded by it and always had to be ready for war -tyrants are unelected rulers who take power CONTINUATION FROM PREVIOUS LECTURE -biggest problems faced by Greece – Persians invades 490. They were seen off quickly in the battle of marathon because of the swift action of the navy -xerxes entered Greece in 480-479 and there was a big battle in thermopoli. There was a big naval battle in Athens and it was occupied by Persians and destroyed. They did not get past peloponese though. -xerces went along on his way and the following year there was a land battle fought with Sparta command at plataea. Took place in 479 and the same day there was a major battle at Mycale. This meant the liveration west and east side of the Aegean sea and freedom from Persian rule. They pulled this off by courage and determination. Persians just wanted real-estate (no big deal for them). Huge salvation for Greece. -after this period there is a development. Athenians have new naval. They want to make the Persians pay back what th
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