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September 24 2013.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2700A/B
Les Murison

September 24 2013 -looking a phase 3 of Stonehenge – at 2000bc there are 2 phases -two faces to Stonehenge – 81blocks of sarsen (32km away) – 2000BC – out rim has 30 upright stones which each weighed 26 metric tonnes and about a metre apart - 6 ton stones lay on top and they are grooved/ridged to fit together (these are made this way to make a circle also) -inside this circle are 5 great big arrangements of stones called trilithons (three stone things) – these stones were bigger than the ones on the outside – the biggest one is 7.3 metres high and these uprights weight about 50 tonnes each – there are 8 posts which are about half a metre wide and this gives a much clearer sight line to the heel stone – stones has significance with summer solstice/winter solstice Phase 3b-blue stones (are little ones from Stonehenge 2) arranged in circle and one imitated the trilithons - purpose is not known to Stonehenge – there are additional holes in the ground and they may be for astronomical markers/observations Final Phase – blue stones were rearranged in horse shoe patterns. Many more were put up in a circle shape. Still no known purpose for Stonehenge. There are additional holes in the ground and they may be for astronomical markers/observations (in loose circles). -trilithons put up first (no way to do it after inner ring was made) -circle first marked out with ox hide rope – 160 ft. long - megalithic yard 2.72ft – 59 megalithic yards – number wasn’t rounded so we assume this was done purposely -circle was marked out in chalk -sarsens – inner trilithons – similar techniques were used on eastern island to stand them up -stones had pointed end to put in ground – 1,000 people needed to move some of the stones – community project done is summer months after harvest – Egyptian pyramid was community project -stones were stood up by making a hole slopping sideways –sticks were put in to support wall/hole – jacked up by ropes until it was upright – we can date when Stonehenge was put up because of the wood (carbon dating) -how lintels were put on top? Make a mound up to the point and slide the rocks up or you prop it up by using levels and leaving it on the platform (move level and platform then repeat) NEXT TOPIC ROADS Why were roads built originally? Not for trade (because of expense (roads expensive to build)– only expensive commodities were transported by land – precious metals, furs, slaves, gems, salt, silk, spices, amber. Also food too bulky to move by land so they did it by water in rivers on boats/barges (more economical – everything more cheaper than by land) – Estimated in Roam times for every 100 miles – 160km the prices of commodity doubled – prior to movement of luxury goods it was actually for rapid movement of dispatches because of the rise of the September 24 2013 middle east (getting information out). In ancient world communication was impossible. Ancient world communication was by using Stemcor towers with mechanicals arms in parts of Scotland (during Roman occupation) in a long valley – no telescope needed just a viewing tube. War chariot used to be used in middle east in 1600BC – light fast vehicle which were important during warfare – it needed more than mere tracks on the grounds – horses were known in the near east no earlier than 2,000bc – early on they were not ridden - stirrup came up after the roman empire. Advantage of stirrup is you can stand up on the horse when it’s going fast. Gentlemen rode in chariots and it was third class to ride a rose – rich dudes had people drive their chariots. Riding horse began with nomads in Southern Russia, Asia Minor and Northern Iran – 875 BC Assyrians had a cavalry (they did still have char
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