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Lesson 4 Lecture Notes

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2800A/B
David Lamari

Verbs With Infinitives in -ire and -iri The present participle is formed by adding -iens, -ientis to the stem of the word and dropping -ire and -iri. When Latin began to change to Old French, every present participle were levelled to - ant and -antis. Some English words from Latin present participles are spelled differently than expected. Ex. Domire (sleep): dormant Tenere (to hold): tenant Many verbs that end in -ere or -i make present participles by ending in -ens or -entis. However, many of these form the present participle by -iens or -ientis. Notes Latinity - the quality of being Latin The English and the Franks (French) • English language seems to us inferior to Latin and French. ◦ Franchise (-ise is an alternate spelling of -ize), meaning to make someone French. The modern meaning means a chain of businesses that are all under the same business model. ◦ Enfranchise - to give someone rights ie. the right to vote. This goes back to a time when you had no rights as an English person. Names such as Francine, Francis and Franklin came out of the want to be French. ◦ "Let me be frank with you" - means to be honest, straightforward. ◦ Frankincense - wealthy men came for the East and gave Frankincense. This means French incense - incense that is good enough for the French. French and Latin vs. English • Hearty welcome or a cordial reception - cordial reception sounds better. • Baker, fishermen, shepherd, weaver. Native English words referred to humble or less impressive things, whereas French words are more impressive. • Carpenter, painter, tailor and mason are all jobs that require a lot of skill unlike the English word professions above. • Breakfast, dinner, supper - breakfast is English. Dinner and supper are French and they are the meals in which you are most likely to fine dine. • Town, house, home are all English. • City, mansion and palace - big town, big house and a big home. These are French words. • The cuts we get from animals are French words, however the animals themselves are English. ◦ Cow, beef ◦ Pig, pork ◦ Calf, veal ◦ Deer, venison ◦ Boil, broil, fry, grill, roast, toast English Orthography • Latin is the pure, original form of French. • Parfit, perfect - perfect is the original Latin word. Parfit is the slurring of the original word, and the English language chooses to keep the Latin. • Peinture, picture • Vittles, victuals • iland, island - iland wasn't a French word. English assumed that iland was a misspelling of island. • Sissors, scissors - thought sissors had something to do with the Latin verb to cut "scism" • Antony, Anthony - thought that Antony had something to do with flowers. The correct spellings of these words are iland, sissor and Antony Inkhorn Words I am of this opinion that our own tung shold be written cleane and pure, unmixt and untangled with borrowing of other tunges, wherein if we take not heed by
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