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Classical Studies 2800A/B Lecture Notes - English Orthography, Frankincense, Venison

Classical Studies
Course Code
CS 2800A/B
David Lamari

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Verbs With Infinitives in -ire and -iri
The present participle is formed by adding -iens, -ientis to the stem of the word and
dropping -ire and -iri.
When Latin began to change to Old French, every present participle were levelled to -
ant and -antis. Some English words from Latin present participles are spelled differently
than expected.
Ex. Domire (sleep): dormant
Tenere (to hold): tenant
Many verbs that end in -ere or -i make present participles by ending in -ens or -entis.
However, many of these form the present participle by -iens or -ientis.
Latinity - the quality of being Latin
The English and the Franks (French)
English language seems to us inferior to Latin and French.
Franchise (-ise is an alternate spelling of -ize), meaning to make someone
French. The modern meaning means a chain of businesses that are all
under the same business model.
Enfranchise - to give someone rights ie. the right to vote. This goes back
to a time when you had no rights as an English person. Names such as
Francine, Francis and Franklin came out of the want to be French.
"Let me be frank with you" - means to be honest, straightforward.
Frankincense - wealthy men came for the East and gave Frankincense.
This means French incense - incense that is good enough for the French.
French and Latin vs. English
Hearty welcome or a cordial reception - cordial reception sounds better.
Baker, fishermen, shepherd, weaver. Native English words referred to humble or
less impressive things, whereas French words are more impressive.
Carpenter, painter, tailor and mason are all jobs that require a lot of skill unlike
the English word professions above.
Breakfast, dinner, supper - breakfast is English. Dinner and supper are French
and they are the meals in which you are most likely to fine dine.
Town, house, home are all English.
City, mansion and palace - big town, big house and a big home. These are
French words.
The cuts we get from animals are French words, however the animals
themselves are English.
Cow, beef
Pig, pork
Calf, veal
Deer, venison
Boil, broil, fry, grill, roast, toast
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