Verbs With Infinitives in -ire and -iri
The present participle is formed by adding -iens, -ientis to the stem of the word and
dropping -ire and -iri.
When Latin began to change to Old French, every present participle were levelled to -
ant and -antis. Some English words from Latin present participles are spelled differently
Ex. Domire (sleep): dormant
Tenere (to hold): tenant
Many verbs that end in -ere or -i make present participles by ending in -ens or -entis.
However, many of these form the present participle by -iens or -ientis.
Latinity - the quality of being Latin
The English and the Franks (French)
• English language seems to us inferior to Latin and French.
◦ Franchise (-ise is an alternate spelling of -ize), meaning to make someone
French. The modern meaning means a chain of businesses that are all
under the same business model.
◦ Enfranchise - to give someone rights ie. the right to vote. This goes back
to a time when you had no rights as an English person. Names such as
Francine, Francis and Franklin came out of the want to be French.
◦ "Let me be frank with you" - means to be honest, straightforward.
◦ Frankincense - wealthy men came for the East and gave Frankincense.
This means French incense - incense that is good enough for the French.
French and Latin vs. English
• Hearty welcome or a cordial reception - cordial reception sounds better.
• Baker, fishermen, shepherd, weaver. Native English words referred to humble or
less impressive things, whereas French words are more impressive.
• Carpenter, painter, tailor and mason are all jobs that require a lot of skill unlike
the English word professions above.
• Breakfast, dinner, supper - breakfast is English. Dinner and supper are French
and they are the meals in which you are most likely to fine dine.
• Town, house, home are all English.
• City, mansion and palace - big town, big house and a big home. These are
• The cuts we get from animals are French words, however the animals
themselves are English.
◦ Cow, beef
◦ Pig, pork
◦ Calf, veal
◦ Deer, venison
◦ Boil, broil, fry, grill, roast, toast English Orthography
• Latin is the pure, original form of French.
• Parfit, perfect - perfect is the original Latin word. Parfit is the slurring of the
original word, and the English language chooses to keep the Latin.
• Peinture, picture
• Vittles, victuals
• iland, island - iland wasn't a French word. English assumed that iland was a
misspelling of island.
• Sissors, scissors - thought sissors had something to do with the Latin verb to cut
• Antony, Anthony - thought that Antony had something to do with flowers. The
correct spellings of these words are iland, sissor and Antony
I am of this opinion that our own tung shold be written cleane and pure, unmixt and
untangled with borrowing of other tunges, wherein if we take not heed by