Classical Studies 2800A/B Lecture Notes - English Orthography, Frankincense, Venison
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Verbs With Infinitives in -ire and -iri
The present participle is formed by adding -iens, -ientis to the stem of the word and
dropping -ire and -iri.
When Latin began to change to Old French, every present participle were levelled to -
ant and -antis. Some English words from Latin present participles are spelled differently
Ex. Domire (sleep): dormant
Tenere (to hold): tenant
Many verbs that end in -ere or -i make present participles by ending in -ens or -entis.
However, many of these form the present participle by -iens or -ientis.
Latinity - the quality of being Latin
The English and the Franks (French)
• English language seems to us inferior to Latin and French.
◦Franchise (-ise is an alternate spelling of -ize), meaning to make someone
French. The modern meaning means a chain of businesses that are all
under the same business model.
◦Enfranchise - to give someone rights ie. the right to vote. This goes back
to a time when you had no rights as an English person. Names such as
Francine, Francis and Franklin came out of the want to be French.
◦"Let me be frank with you" - means to be honest, straightforward.
◦Frankincense - wealthy men came for the East and gave Frankincense.
This means French incense - incense that is good enough for the French.
French and Latin vs. English
• Hearty welcome or a cordial reception - cordial reception sounds better.
• Baker, fishermen, shepherd, weaver. Native English words referred to humble or
less impressive things, whereas French words are more impressive.
• Carpenter, painter, tailor and mason are all jobs that require a lot of skill unlike
the English word professions above.
• Breakfast, dinner, supper - breakfast is English. Dinner and supper are French
and they are the meals in which you are most likely to fine dine.
• Town, house, home are all English.
• City, mansion and palace - big town, big house and a big home. These are
• The cuts we get from animals are French words, however the animals
themselves are English.
◦Boil, broil, fry, grill, roast, toast
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