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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2800A/B
David Lamari

Lesson 01 Terminology Etymology: study of origins of words Assassin <= hashischin, „one who likes hash‟ Assassin <= hassassin, „follower of Hassan‟ Semantics: study of meanings Assassin <= one who kills a public figure Phonology: study of pronunciation Hassassin => assassin; Hispania (Hispanic) > Spain Quadrata => quarry Armata => Sp. Armada => E. army Gelata => It. Gelato => E. jelly ----------------------------------------------------- (Earlier form) => (later form) ----------------------------------------------------- = Exactly the same ----------------------------------------------------- ~ Two words related (same parts) Etymologically equivalent ----------------------------------------------------- The Basic Tools Stem: root of the word Mund - world Cord(i) - heart Verb - word (Derivational) Suffix: changes the part of speech (noun, verb,…) Fixed on the end of the word Changes the part of speech (noun to verb, verb to adjective) Popul – ate (to make people) Popul – at – tion (result of making people) Educ – at – ion – al – iz – at – ion Inflectional Suffix: changes the grammar of the word Changes the grammar of the word Houses, faster Prefixes: Modify or limit the stem De – populate (go down), re – populate (go back up) Linking Vowels For euphony (just to make it sound better) Ge – o – logy, dign – i – fy Nouns and Adjectives Nouns = I have … Nouns ending in -us/-a/-um  ending dropped or silent „e‟ Digitus > digit Figura > figure Mappa > map Identical form Alumnus, arena, cerebrum Adjectives ending in -us/-a/um Ending dropped, or replaced by silent „e‟ Firmus/a/um > firm Sanus/a/um > sane Solus/a/u, > sole All other nouns Stem derived from genitive (2nd) entry  drop „-is‟ or „-us‟ ending corpus, corporis > corpor – (eg, corporal) rex, regis > reg – (eg, regal) cors, cordis > cord(i) – (eg, cordial) Adjectival suffixes; turn verbs or nouns into adjective Define “grouchy” Grouch + y = “pertaining to…, characterized by…, resembling…”  Greek stems tend to have Greek suffixes  English stems tend to have English suffixes Adjectival suffix -al/-ar Cordi – al > cordial „Pertaining to the heart‟ „heart-y‟ When to expect –ar, not –al When the stem already has an „l‟ Pol- + -al > polar Vulg- + -al > vulgar More Latin adjectival suffixes -arius > -ary Budgetary, secreta
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