Environmental Science 1021F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Stone Age, Doubling Time, Interspecific Competition

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Ecology is the study of the relationships of organisms and their environment. It is a core subject area of environmental science. Humans have unique and powerful capabilities, but are nevertheless dependent on the environment to supply all vital resources. The sustainability of the human economy is fundamentally an ecological issue. Individual organisms, which are discrete, genetically unique entities. Populations, or groups of individuals of the same species that can potentially interbreed with each other. Species, consisting of one or more interbreeding populations that, in aggregate, are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Communities, consisting of populations of various species that co-occur at the same time and place. Landscapes and seascapes, which are spatial integrations of various communities over large areas. The biosphere, consisting of all life and ecosystems on earth. Many environmental influences are resources that organisms can exploit to achieve productivity and to reproduce themselves. Others influences are stressors that constrain productivity and reproductive fitness, such as:

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