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Lecture 8

Geography 1400F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Territorial Authorities Of New Zealand, Nationstates, Boundary 2

Course Code
GEOG 1400F/G
Jeff Hopkins

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# Lec 7
1. Culture is spatial & political (power)
2. Different cultural groups occupy different spaces, places & derees of power
3. Major Markers of Culture Identities
a) Class: position or role in the economy
b) 'Race': not biological but social
c) Ethnicity: important in spatial/political contexts
d) Gender: cultural, plural, fluid, changing
e) Sexuality, cultural…
4. Social-Spatial Justice: why & how to share space equitably w/ 'others'?
1. Key Concepts of Political Geography
a) Politics
i. … is the struggle for power
ii. Specifically, the power to exercise control over people & the spaces they use
b) Political Geography studies the spatial dimension
of human conflict and cooperation on this planet.
i. Scale of study: Traditionally at the state level
ii. Meaning political Geography studies the actions of governments and institutions rather than those of
actual people
iii. Essentially Political Geographers are interested in how humans:
1. group themselves into nations
2. how those nations can form the foundation of states
3. how states claim space as their territory
4. how states compete for territory and negotiate boundaries btw each other
c) Key concept: Human Territoriality:
i. The strategy used by individuals, groups, & organizations to exercise power over a portion of space
and its contents e.g. (personal bubble nation-states)
2. Key Characteristic of 'states'
a) Nation: A group of people sharing a common culture/trait/identity & an attachment to some territory
1. i.e. a common mother tongue / ethnic ancestry / religion / history
b) State: An area (as in 'country') & political institution (As in the 'authorities')
i. Covers a distinct space (the 'territory')
ii. The limits of the territory are defined by boundaries to neighbouring states
iii. The territory is ruled by one govn't that exercise control over the territory & those that live w/in it
1. Key facts abt the 'state'
a) Need a defined territory where its laws are enforced
b) Need a set of laws that are in force across the territory
c) Need a popl'n that enforces & follows the laws
c) Nation-State: A clearly-defined large group of people who self-identify as a group & occupy a spatially-
defined territory w/ necessary infrastructure, social & political institutions
i. Note: there're few 'true' nation-states
1. e.g.s of 'true' nation-states: Japan, Italy, Iceland (language often a marker)
d) Stateless Nations: Nations that don't currently have a state of their own
i. e.g.s
1. The Basque living in Northern Spain & Southern France want to form their own state
2. Kurds living is dispersed across Turkey, Iraq, & Syria pushing for a sovereign state to be carved
out of northern Iraq
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