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Lecture 1

Geography 2010A/B Lecture 1: Geography-of-Canada-Exam

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Geography 2010A/B
Mark Moscicki

Geography of Canada: Midterm February 14 , 2017 Chapter One: Important Parts Know the faultlines section The core/periphery theory: how it developed, differences, etc Lecture One The Study of Regional Geography Regionalism - The division of a large area into different parts - Some countries more prone to regionalism than others – - Countries prone to regionalism: o Canada o US o China (Tibet) o Russia (Siberia) o Australia Why is regionalism so prevalent in Canada? - Vast geographic size and varied physical geography - Different patterns of historic settlement - Different cultures and languages (Quebec) - Uneven population distribution (most people in Canada live a couple hours from the US boarder) - The British North American Act (1867) gave considerable power to the province Region: A distinctive area of Earth’s surface. It has distinguishing human or natural characteristics that set it apart from other areas - The boundaries of regions are related to faultlines. (not physical- something you can’t see) - There are not physical fault lines; instead, they are differences between two different areas whether it be geographic, cultural, etc Approaches to Identifying Regions - Provincially defined region: o Choose an area of provinces (e.g. Atlantic Canada). Describe the area, analyse the economy, study the demographic, understand the physical geography. - Categorization of land surface: o Classify the land into chunks that have similar characteristics Types of Regions - Uniform region: o It is named after a characteristic where all locations in the region have similarities in that particular characteristic. o Ex: Vegetation region o grassland, desert, etc. - Functional region: o There are interactions among different areas within the region (e.g. the urban part og the region and the periphery.) o Ex: Transportation network o Major roads and highways in Manitoba tend to branch out from Winnipeg. - Cultural region: o These areas are based on a sense of belonging. o There is a bond between people and the region. o It arise from shared historical experiences, similar values, and common goals. o Ex: Francophones in Quebec Determining Regions - When deciding how to determine regions, how do we know how many regions to define? - The number is unlimited because of their subjective nature. Regions are human constructs. Faultlines within Canada - Faultlines are economic, social, and political ‘cracks’ that divide regions and threaten to destabilize Canada’s integrity as a nation. - There are 4 faultlines that have played a role in Canada’s historic evolution and have had profound regional consequences 1. Centralist / Decentralist o Demography favours Ontario and Quebec because the majority of Canadians reside in these areas. o People in other regions have perceived the federal government as favoring Ontario and Quebec. o No federal political party can form a majority government without strong support form these two regions 2. English speaking / French speaking Canadians o There is a political and cultural struggle in Quebec to maintain French as a viable language in a principally English-speaking continent. o The proportion of French speaking Canadians has declined. o Within Quebec itself, an internal faultline exists between separatists and federalists. 3. Indigenous Peoples and the Non-Indigenous Majority o Many Indigenous communities remain dependent on the federal government. o Poverty, unemployment, and social issues are common in these communities. 4. Newcomers and Old-Timers o Canada is a country of immigrants and this can sometimes lead to cultural friction among different ethnic groups. o Many new immigrants are concentrated in major cities; this gives them a network of family and friends who speak their language and restaurants that serve their desired food. However, it could create a sense of isolation from other Canadians. Lecture Two The Sense of Place - A sense of place involves a psychological bond between people and their location. These stem from the physical landscape of the area, human activities, and institutional bodies. - It recognizes that collective experiences have led to shared aspirations, concerns, goals, and values. - Strong sense of place in Canada are particularly evident in Atlantic Canada and the Prairies The 6 Regions of Canada - Territorial North - British Columbia - Western Canada (Prairie Provinces) - Ontario - Quebec - Atlantic Canada Why have these areas been defined as regions? 1. They are manageable sections. 2. They are identifiable by a set of physical features. 3. Breakdown is on a provincial basis (this makes it easy to study statistics and census data) 4. These regions are commonly identified by the media - 62% of Canada’s population is in Ontario and Quebec - 60% of Canada’s economy is based on On and Qc - Only 25% of Canadians live in QC now versus 33% - Major growth in the west (BC) The Core/Periphery Model - This model describes interaction among regions and is evident in Canada. - It is also referred to as the heartland/hinterland model. - It is based on a theory that capitalist economics results in regionally uneven development. - This is a concept where both parts are dependent on each other but the core (industrial heartland) dominates the economic relationship with its periphery (resource hinterland). - In Canada, the core is considered to be southern ON and southern QC. All other areas in the country make up the periphery. - B.C. and the prairie provinces are considered to be upward transitional regions. Atlantic Canada is a downward transition region. The Territorial North is a resource frontier. Characteristics of Cores - receive raw materials from the periphery - manufacturing is a common industry - Geographically small - Diverse economy - Urban and densely populated - Home to corporate headquarters Characteristics of Peripheries - purchase finished goods from the core - Resource based economy - Geographically large - Rural and sparsely populated In general, as one moves from a core toward a periphery: - Population decreases - Median income decreases - Unemployment increases Theories on the Core/Periphery Model 1. Regional Exploitation Theory o The wealthy core exploits the natural wealth of the periphery leaving it impoverished. 2. Modernization Theory o The core invests in the periphery and helps it to develop. - Equalization payments – how the core helps the periphery (how the Canadian federal government distributes wealth throughout the provinces) Sub-Cores in Canada At a smaller scale than cores, there is evidence of sub-cores existing in Canada: - Vancouver/Victoria - Edmonton/Calgary - Halifax The Staple Thesis - How did Canada’s core become the core? o The Staples Thesis is a proposed explanation - What is a ‘staple’ product? o A natural resource that can be exploited relatively quickly and cheaply for profit. o Ex: forestry, fishing, hunting (fur) - The regional economic history of Canada was linked to the discovery, utilization, and export of staple resources in Canada’s vast frontier. - It was expected that eventually economic diversification would take place, making peripheral regions less reliant on primary resources. - The thesis was proposed by Harold Innis in the early 1930s - Atlantic Canada was the first region to be settled and in its early history it was a periphery to England. - Over time there has been an east to west progression of staples across the country. Progression of Canada’s Staples 1. Fish (east) o This was the earliest staple product. 2. 2. Furs (eastest) 3. Timber (east  west) 4. Agriculture (Ontario  West) 5. Oil (west) Economic Linkages for Growth Three types of economic linkages are necessary for economic growth and job creation: - Backward linkage: Supplies for the staple industry (e.g. saws and tools for the forest industry). - Forward linkage: Local processing before export (e.g. squaring timber before shipment) - Final demand linkage: Service the needs of workers and families (general stores, schools, etc.) The National Policy - The National Policy (1879) contributed to the core of Canada being located where it is today. o This policy created a Canada-wide market for Canadian goods. - How? o Through the implementation of tariffs and restricted trade on foreign goods. - Implications o It prevented Canadians from purchasing cheaper goods from the US o it favoured further economic and manufacturing growth in Ontario and Quebec since this is where transportation costs were minimized o it had a negative impact in the west because they had to purchase expensive goods from Canada’s core but they were selling staple goods to the U.S. at low prices; the U.S. also had its own tariffs The Canada- U.S. Free Trade Agreement - The agreement was signed in 1988. - It helped peripheries by providing cheaper products to purchase and also providing a larger market for their staple products. - However, many companies began integrating major plants and feeder factories in one general location (the US and Canadian manufacturing core). - It was superseded by NAFTA in 1994 when Mexico joined the agreement. The Thickening Canada-U.S. Border - This has been an ongoing concern since Sep. 11, 2001. - Auto manufacturing assembly plants in southern Ontario need easy access to the U.S. market. - Citizens of one country are now required to show passports when crossing into the other country by either land or air. - This has led to a decline in tourism especially in border cities (Niagara Falls, Windsor, Sarnia). - The U.S. federal government favours a North American security perimeter that includes a common position on immigration, military, and trade policies. - These are thought to potentially reduce the chance of terrorist attacks. Canada in the Global World - There is a core/periphery on a global scale where North America and Europe make up the core. - A third area called a “semi-periphery” is evident in Asia where there is strong economic growth. - Diversification of trade is a top priority for Canada in order to take advantage of the growth in Asia. - The US market will likely always remain Canada’s principal market. Physical Geography - Definition: o The study of Earth’s natural features. - In our study of the physical geography of Canada, we will define 5 different categories: o Geology o Physiography (about land surface) o Climate o Vegetation o soil Geology of Canada - Three major rock types: o Igneous rock: • Molten rock that emerged onto Earth’s surface and cooled. It is hard, resists erosion, and often contains minerals. o Sedimentary rock: • Layered rock composed of materials that have been affected by wind and weathering. • Sedimentary rocks are usually flat and horizontal. • Sediments are cemented together by pressure and do not generally contain much mineral content. • Fossil fuels are sometimes found in these rock types. o Metamorphic rock: • Pre-existing rocks that change form by the process of extreme heat and pressure. They sometimes contain minerals. • Limestone is a sedimentary rock; the metamorphic rock of limestone is marble - Weathering is the breakdown of the rock and erosion is the movement of the broken materials. Major Geologic Elements of Canada - Canadian Shield o It is composed of ancient igneous, resistant rock. o This is the oldest rock in North America. o It extends from the Northwest Territories through the northern Prairie provinces through northern Ontario, northern Quebec and Labrador. - Platform Rock o These rocks underlay the Interior Plains of the continent (from the Northwest Territories to Texas). o They are mainly sedimentary and contain large areas of oil and natural gas. - Folded Mountains o Folding is caused by the movement of tectonic plates. o It can cause sedimentary rock to change into metamorphic rock. o There are three major mountainous areas in Canada. Mountains in Canada - Appalachian Mountains o Found in Quebec and Atlantic Canada, they are relatively old, relatively low, well eroded, and covered with vegetation. - Innuitian Mountains o Found in northern Nunavut, these are jagged but somewhat eroded, mostly inaccessible mountains. - Cordillera o Major ranges include the Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains. They are the youngest mountains in Canada, the highest, most jagged, and have permanently snow-capped tops. o Younger and haven’t been eroded, no trees (too cold to survive) Physiographic Regions - A physiographic region is a large area of Earth’s crust that has common characteristics: o it extends over a large area with similar topographic features o Its landforms have been shaped by a common set of geologic processes - Canada has 7 physiographic regions: o Canadian Shield o Cordillera o Interior Plains o Hudson Bay Lowlands o Arctic Archipelago o Appalachian Uplands o Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands - Canadian Shield o It extends over half of the country’s o land mass. o Rock-like surface consists mainly of o rugged land. o During the last ice advance, surfaces were subjected to glacial erosion and deposition. o It contains a wealth of varied mineral resources o Ice came down from the north – ice advance - Cordillera o A complex region of mountains, plateaus, and valleys. o North-south alignment extends from Yukon to southern British Columbia. o The Rocky Mountains are the best known and tallest of the mountain regions. - Interior Plains o This region was once covered by shallow inland seas where sediments eventually formed sedimentary rock. o The Deep, wide river valleys are a unique feature of this region. - Hudson Bay Lowlands o This region has many bogs and contains muskeg (poorly drained soil). o Permafrost is widespread. - Arctic Archipelago o A complex area of coastal plains, plateaus, and mountains that lie north of the Arctic Circle. o The northern part of this region is permanently covered in snow and ice while the southern part contains tundra. o The region is underlain by continuous permafrost making tree growth impossible. - Appalachian Uplands o This is an area with a rugged and rocky environment (Newfoundland) and old rounded mountains (New Brunswick). - Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands o This region is generally flat with rolling hills. o The soil is very fertile and well suited for agriculture and a variety of crops. o Sedimentary rock – the rolling landscape Glaciation - Glaciation was a major shaping force in Canada. - All of Canada (except for northern Yukon) was covered by ice sheets just 18,000 years ago. - The advance and retreat of ice greatly impacted the appearance of the landscape. - Climates really started to warm after 18,000 years ago—important date - 3km thick ice in the middle – ice was so thick that it created a massive depression which created the Hudson Bay – moist climate (why it was the thickest) - Desert up near Yukon – no snowfall – why there was no ice Types of Glaciers - Continental Glaciers o Thick sheets of ice that cover entire continents. o Today, the only continental glaciers on Earth are on Greenland and Antarctica where ice is up to 3km thick. - Alpine Glaciers o Glaciers that are found in mountainous regions. o A glacier can develop when slopes accumulate with snow that compacts into ice over long periods of time. • Top Left- Pre glacial hills • Main Image- Glacier filled in the valley • V shaped to U shaped valley • The arete is pointing to the jagged side of the mountain • The cirque is the rounded mound o massive boulders created by the ice sheet pushing rocks Alpine Postglacial Landscapes (along the edge of the ice sheet) - Pleistocene Glaciation - 18,000 Years ago 9500 Years ago Evolution of the Great Lakes - London used to be at the bottom of the lake which is why the soil is so fertile Former Lake Agassiz - This was a large lake in what is now Manitoba and northern Ontario. - It was formed from the melting of the continental ice sheet. - Very fertile land below the lake Components of Climate - Weather refers to the current state of the atmosphere. - Climate describes average weather conditions for a specific place over a long period of time. - There are two major components of climate: 1. Temperature 2. Precipitation - These components vary greatly across the country as a result of 7 major climatic controls. Climatic Controls o Latitude: o At lower latitudes, more solar radiations impacts the surface. o Altitude: o Higher elevations experience cooler temperatures. o Proximity to Bodies of Water: o Water keeps nearby land areas warmer in Autumn and cooler in Spring. o Ocean Currents: o Currents transport warm or cold water depending on the source of the current. o Variations in Topography: o Cold air is dense and tends to sink into valleys. o Prevailing Wind: o Some wind systems cause rapid temperature changes (e.g. chinook wind) o Locations of Pressure Systems: o Relates to the position of warm and cold fronts. Effects of Latitude o Scotland located near the ocean which keeps it warm even though its further north o Brazil is near the equator which is why its hot o Alaska is furthest from the equator o Temperature decreases with increasing altitude. o There are fewer air molecules at higher elevations. This allows heat to more easily escape into space. Climatic Zones Canada has 7 climatic zones: o Pacific o Cordillera o Prairies o Great Lakes - St. Lawrence o Atlantic o Subarctic o Arctic o Most of Canada’s land mass is located within the Subarctic and Arctic climate zones. o Canadian shield matches up with the subarctic zone o Interior planes – prairies Temperatures Across Canada o Temperatures in Canada are primarily controlled by latitude. o Moderation is evident along both coasts (especially the Pacific coast due to prevailing westerly winds), and to a lesser extent around the Great Lakes. Mean Jan Temp Mean July Temp o January: BC coast (Victoria, Vancouver) has a mean above zero (only one) o July: effect of water cooling places in the summer Physical Effects of Temperature o Temperature dictates the type of predominant vegetation in an area. o Boreal – evergreen o Maple trees can only grow in 10% of Canada o Temperature dictates the length of the growing season in an area. o London – soy beans o Niagara – tomatoes, fruit, grapes o 6 zone swings around lake Huron – growing season is longer around here because the lake keeps this area warmer longer o Growing season is the number of days between final frost in spring and first frost in fall o Victoria has the longest growing season in Canada – a little more than 200 days (almost 7 months) Precipitation Across Canada o The Prairies and the North are relatively dry (especially in winter). o The west coast is very wet due to orographic precipitation. o Convective precipitation occurs in the prairies and Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands during summer. o Precipitation is moderate and consistent in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands o Lake effect snow is common in parts of southern Ontario. o Orographic precipitation: is caused by air rising up a mountain (oro implies mountain) o Convective precipitation: implies thunderstorms caused by air rising off of hot ground or by cold fronts o desert: area that receives less than 250 mm of precipitation annually. Lecture Three Know for exam: - Core periphery model - The spales thesis - The national policy - 3 geologic elements of Canada - 7 physiographic regions – be able to explain what these areas look like in terms of their landscape - Climatic controls (factors- latitude, altitude) - 7 climatic zones of Canada Vegetation in Canada - Much of the vegetation we see today in Canada is not natural. Instead, it has been introduced through agriculture and human activity. - Major natural vegetation types in Canada: o Forests o Grasslands o Tundra Natural Vegetation Zones - U shape due to the cold temperature of Hudson Bay Types of Vegetation - Forest o Deciduous forests are composed of trees that lose their leaves each winter. o Ex: Broadleaf forest and Carolinian Forest (southern Ontario) o Coniferous forests are composed of evergreen trees. o Ex: Boreal forest (Canadian Shield) - Grassland o These are found in relatively dry areas. The size of the grass varies with moisture content. o Grasslands in Canada are only found in the prairie provinces. o Xerophyte: A plant that has adapted to low amounts of water (tundra for example) - Tundra o These small plants survive in harsh climates. They reproduce by runners (offshoots of the main plant). o They are found in Arctic and alpine areas. o Tundra o These small plants survive in harsh climates. They reproduce by runners (offshoots of the main plant). o They are found in Arctic and alpine areas. o Adaptation of Tundra: ▪ Tundra plants have shallow root systems due to the permafrost environment. ▪ The leaves of the plants are waxy in order to reduce moisture loss. ▪ Krumholz: ▪ A plant that grows in a sideways formation because harsh dry winds desiccate the upper part of the plant. Permafrost Zones in Canada - Yellow zone – continuous permafrost: at least 80% of the ground is permanently frozen (there are patches that are not) - Orange – discontinuous permafrost: 30-80% of the ground is permanently frozen - Sporadic: 0-30% Permafrost - Permafrost forms where the mean annual temperature of the soil is below 0°C. - Discontinuous permafrost may form in areas with a northerly aspect. - The line marking the zone of continuous permafrost roughly follows the tree line. - The tree line has moved northward by approximately 100 km over the past 50 years. - Aspect: the direction you are facing (think about slopes– if a slope faces north, it has a northerly aspect which means it is never directly exposed to the sun– more likely to see permafrost Alpine Tree Line Permafrost Talik: permafrost free zone beneath a lake Risks from Permafrost Melting - Melting of permafrost can cause roads and railways to buckle and buildings to fracture. - Utilities and pipelines must be built above ground; many buildings are built on stilts. - Structure can sag as the permafrost melts Soil Types in Canada Soil Type Location Cryosolic North Podzolic Canadian Shield Luvisolic Southern Ontario Chernozemic Prairies Mountain Cordillera (soil varies by slope and aspect) Complex - Just need to know the 4 major soil types and where they are in Canada – couple characteristics for each - Cryo: frozen - Match the areas with the soil types – for ex: podzolic most common in the Canadian Shield Cyrosolic Soil - It is typically found north of the tree line. - It is the dominant soil in the Arctic Archipelago and around Hudson Bay. - This soil type is found where the mean annual temperature is below 0 degrees and where continuous permafrost is common. Podzolic Soil - It is most commonly found in cool, moist climates (Canadian Shield) and is light grey in colour. - Coniferous vegetation is most commonly associated with it. - Leaching is evident (moisture easily percolates downward through this soil). - Leaching: the movement or percolation of water downward through the soil Luvisolic Soil - It is most commonly found in humid continental climates (southern Ontario). - Deciduous vegetation is most commonly associated with it. - Organic content is most evident in this soil because trees dropping leaves creates a thick organic layer. - Warm summers lead to quick decomposition of organic material. - Humid continental : has 4 distinct seasons - Organic: soil composed of matter from a once living organism (for ex: leaf litter – deciduous trees drop their leaves and they decompose which adds to organic content) Chernozemic Soil - It is most commonly found in dry climates where grasslands are located. - The soil is very dark in color with relatively high organic content. - Leaching is evident but not as much as in podzolic soil. - Alberta ---- Manitoba - As you move east, you see more precipitation (which is reason for the short to long grass west to east) Palliser’s Triangle - This semi-arid area in the western Prairies was named by John Palliser, a leader of a survey expedition of the Canadian west for Britain in the mid 1800s. - He declared that it was an area unsuitable for agriculture. - Since then, wheat growing and cattle grazing have become the common land uses. - Farmers here often require government subsidies to aid in surviving through drought conditions. - Arid: very dry (almost desert) - Talking about the red area on the map - Western Saskatchewan, Eastern Alberta - None of the big cities are in here Drainage Basins - Every river has a drainage basin (the area of surrounding land that is drained by that river). - Drainage basins can also be defined for lakes. In that case, it is defined as the area of land that drains into that lake. - Theoretically, any rain drop that falls in the yellow area will eventually flow into the Mackenzie River - Any rain drop that falls in the brown area will drain into the Thames river – St.Lawrence River to the atlantic Divides - Divides form the boundaries of drainage basins. - A divide is a ridge of higher land that separates which way rivers flow. Continental Divide - The Continental Divide is located along the spine of the Rocky Mountains. It forms much of the British Columbia – Alberta border - It separates which ocean the water will eventually drain into. Major Drainage Basins in Canada arrow – Columbia ice field Drainage Basins as Open Systems - Input: Precipitation - Outputs: Rivers, evaporation - Rivers are in a state of dynamic equilibrium and are able to adapt to changes in the amount of water in the drainage basin. Columbia Ice Field - This is the last remaining ice sheet in southern Canada. - It straddles the continental divide in Jasper National Park and is home to 8 large alpine glaciers. - The North Saskatchewan River originates in the Columbia Ice Field; this river flows Edmonton and Saskatoon. Glacial Retreat - The Athabasca Glacier is the most well-known alpine glacier in the Columbia Ice Field. - It is retreating at a rate of 2-3 meters per year. Changes in Arctic Sea Ice - In the coming decades, the polar areas are expected to warm faster than any other areas on Earth. - Ice/snow reflect sunlight. - As the ice and snow melts, the resulting water absorbs sunlight. - This heats up the water and encourages nearby ice to melt. What to look at in Chapter 2: - 7 physiographic regions - Climate factors (climate controls) - Drainage basins - Vignette 2.9 (Types of precipitation) Lecture Four Historical Geography of Canada - Three influential events that have shaped Canada’s history: o The arrival of the first people in North America o The colonization of North America by France and England o The influx of people from eastern Europe - First People o Hunters from the Old World (the Eastern Hemisphere) were the first to arrive about 40,000 years ago. o They crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Siberia to Alaska and then continued eastward. o The land bridge accessible at the time because sea level was much lower than it is today. The First People of Canada - As the continental ice in North America began retreating, descendants of the hunters pushed further south. - They travelled along an ice-free corridor that developed along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. - They commonly hunted mammoths with pointed spears. - As mammoths became extinct, the first people began shifting to a diet mixed with meat (buffalo and caribou), fish, and plants. Migration Routes Tribes - The revised diet allowed the first people to remain in a specific geographic region. - This marked the beginning of more social units that became the forerunners of tribes. - Trade among tribes began about 10,000 years ago. Arctic Migration - The Laurentide Ice Sheet began retreating from what is now Nunavut about 5000 years ago. - After this point, groups of sea hunters were able to advance eastward. - They hunted walrus, seal, etc. - The Thule settled in this area - About 1000 years ago. - They are the ancestors of the current Inuit. First Contact with Europeans - European explorers considered the New World (the Western Hemisphere) terra nullius (empty land). - First contact between Europeans and Indigenous people occurred throughout North America from the late 1400s through the 1600s. - Just before first contact, there may have been as many as 500,000 Indigenous people living in what is now Canada. - The Indigenous population dropped by up to 80% as a result of battles and diseases brought by European settlers. The Second People of Canada - The second people were of French or British descent. - French explorers established a settlement at Quebec City in 1608. - The area became known as New France and grew to a population of 60,000 before the arrival of British explorers in the mid 1700s. - After the British Conquest of New France in 1759, British immigrants began to move to the area. - Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759) – important event because it is why we are mostly an English speaking country rather than French speaking Waves of British Immigration - First wave: o British Loyalists living in what is now the U.S. supported Britain during the U.S. War of Independence (1775-83). o Many British Loyalists settled in what is now southern Ontario and the Maritimes soon after the U.S. became independent. - Second wave: o During the early 1800s, 1 million people migrated from the Britain to ‘British North America’ (the former name of Canada). o This resulted from a deterior0ating economy in England. Canada at Confederation - In 1867, the population of British North America was approximately 3 million. - About 75% of the population lived in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands and about 20% lived in the Atlantic region. - 60% of the population of European ancestry was English speaking. - In the Red River valley, the Metis people (a mix of Indigenous and European descent) were the dominant population. Confederation - Canada became a country in 1867 when four small British colonies united: - Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), New Brunswick, Nova Scotia - These became the first four provinces. - Britain was eager for the colonies to forma union to withstand possible annexation by the United States. - Need to know when every province joined confederation for exam - It was called upper Canada for Ontario and lower Canada for Quebec because of where the St Lawrence river flows Canada in 1867 The Third People of Canada - In 1870, Ottawa (i.e. the federal government) obtained control over Rupert’s Land. Much of this land was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company. - The federal government felt it was important to settle this land because: o It would diminish the threat of U.S. settlers annexing the land o Transport of grain would provide freight for a planned cross-continent railroad. - Clifford Sifton (Minister of the Interior) was assigned the task of settling the prairie region of Western Canada. - The federal government specifically looked to attract immigrants from eastern Europe, Russia, Scandinavia, and Ukraine. - The majority of them arrived from 1895–1915. - These areas are home to dry grassland environments similar to the Canadian prairies. - A new dimension was therefore added to Canada’s population: people with neither a French nor British nor Indigenous background
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