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Lecture 9

Geography 2060A/B Lecture 9: Geo Lecture 9 SE asia

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Western University
Geography 2060A/B
Zubedaar Kuuire

Geo Lecture 9: Southeast Asia: Introduction: • A clash of cultures, religions, political systems, economic growth patterns • ‘Stuck in the middle’ • Western character • Located between two big influences: india and china Urban patterns at the regional scale: • Low urbanization levels, high growth rates • Indian/Chinese spice trade • Early city-states: Angkor Wat, Malacca • Wide-ranging colonial influence • Rapid growth à peri-urban land conflicts Precolonial Patterns of Urban Development: • Maritime influences drive urbanism • River valleys a ‘highways of water’ • A crossroads of trade à development of cities along Java, Sumatra • Historically one of the most urbanized regions in the world • Rivers make them accessible • Also a crossroads of culture and religion • Most societies (minus Vietnam and the Philippines) influenced by India • ‘Indianization’ not accompanied by colonial settlement • Area influenced by religions and fluidity of movement in the area • Not accompanied by colonial power like sub Saharan Africa and the Americas • Earliest dominant market city: Oc Eo (1900 years old), in Mekong River Delta • Existed before contact with Europeans in this area th th • Replaced by Srivijaya on Sumatra (7 -14 centuries) • Early dominant sacred cities: include world’s largest Buddhist temple (Borobudur), ~1 million people in Angkor Wat • 1 million people at one point in time • time when Europeans have began to make contact with this region (foreign th intervention ~16 century) • Sacred cities declined ~16 Century: Internal issues, economic collapse, foreign intervention Urbanization in Colonial SE asia: • Commodity trade helped urbanization process (6 cities with 100,000 in 1500) • Urban tradition entrenched everywhere but Philippines • Colonialism driven by trade (religion less important), ultimately hurt existing urbanism – 100,000 decline to 30-10,000 • Spanish colonialism: created link for worldwide trade • Dutch colonialism: modeled after Dutch cities of the time • Two of the biggest influences: Spanish and dutch • Spanish influence mainly in the Philippines • Dutch attempted to modified cities but implementing architectural styles and designs. But bc of the climate these styles and designs didn’t work out • Urban primacy developed in Spanish Manila, Dutch Batavia (Jakarta), British Temasek (Singapore), French Saigon, independent Bangkok • Establishment of urban nodes and emergence of primacy • Transformation of smaller cities and regional transportation/urban systems Recent urbanization trends in SE Asia: • Cities with 1 million: 1940 (0) à 2000 (13) • Megacities: Jakarta, Manila, Bangkok • Growth due to: birth rates > death rates, rural/urban migration, immigration • Urban reclassification • Even though it has a really long hx of urban dev’m, in 1940 there were no cities over 1 million • Now they have 3 megacities • Migration important for driving growth • Khmer Rouge regime: forced migration to rural areas…now moving back • Increasingly dominated by women (change of economy) • Short-time, circular migration driven by informal sector work income diversification opportunities, more viable with improvements to infrastructure Globalization and the middle class: • Labor structure has become differentiated by
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