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2060A/B (40)
Lecture 9

Geography 2060A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Primate City, Water Pollution, Traffic CongestionPremium

5 pages57 viewsWinter 2017

Department
Geography
Course Code
Geography 2060A/B
Professor
Zubedaar Kuuire
Lecture
9

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Geo Lecture 9: Southeast Asia:
Introduction:
A clash of cultures, religions, political systems, economic growth patterns
‘Stuck in the middle’
Western character
Located between two big influences: india and china
Urban patterns at the regional scale:
Low urbanization levels, high growth rates
Indian/Chinese spice trade
Early city-states: Angkor Wat, Malacca
Wide-ranging colonial influence
Rapid growth à peri-urban land conflicts
Precolonial Patterns of Urban Development:
Maritime influences drive urbanism
River valleys a ‘highways of water’
A crossroads of trade à development of cities along Java, Sumatra
Historically one of the most urbanized regions in the world
Rivers make them accessible
Also a crossroads of culture and religion
Most societies (minus Vietnam and the Philippines) influenced by India
‘Indianization’ not accompanied by colonial settlement
Area influenced by religions and fluidity of movement in the area
Not accompanied by colonial power like sub Saharan Africa and the Americas
Earliest dominant market city: Oc Eo (1900 years old), in Mekong River Delta
Existed before contact with Europeans in this area
Replaced by Srivijaya on Sumatra (7th-14th centuries)
Early dominant sacred cities: include world’s largest Buddhist temple (Borobudur), ~1
million people in Angkor Wat
1 million people at one point in time
time when Europeans have began to make contact with this region (foreign
intervention ~16th century)
Sacred cities declined ~16th Century: Internal issues, economic collapse, foreign
intervention
Urbanization in Colonial SE asia:
Commodity trade helped urbanization process (6 cities with 100,000 in 1500)
Urban tradition entrenched everywhere but Philippines
Colonialism driven by trade (religion less important), ultimately hurt existing urbanism
100,000 decline to 30-10,000
Spanish colonialism: created link for worldwide trade
Dutch colonialism: modeled after Dutch cities of the time
Two of the biggest influences: Spanish and dutch
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Spanish influence mainly in the Philippines
Dutch attempted to modified cities but implementing architectural styles and designs.
But bc of the climate these styles and designs didn’t work out
Urban primacy developed in Spanish Manila, Dutch Batavia (Jakarta), British Temasek
(Singapore), French Saigon, independent Bangkok
Establishment of urban nodes and emergence of primacy
Transformation of smaller cities and regional transportation/urban systems
Recent urbanization trends in SE Asia:
Cities with 1 million: 1940 (0) à 2000 (13)
Megacities: Jakarta, Manila, Bangkok
Growth due to: birth rates > death rates, rural/urban migration, immigration
Urban reclassification
Even though it has a really long hx of urban dev’m, in 1940 there were no cities over 1
million
Now they have 3 megacities
Migration important for driving growth
Khmer Rouge regime: forced migration to rural areas…now moving back
Increasingly dominated by women (change of economy)
Short-time, circular migration driven by informal sector work income diversification
opportunities, more viable with improvements to infrastructure
Globalization and the middle class:
Labor structure has become differentiated by sub-region
Singapore: marketing, sales
Malaysia, Phnom Penh: assembly, testing of AV
Bangkok, Jakarta: packaging (low-skilled, labour intensive)
Economic shifts
à Decline in agriculture, emergence of urban middle class
Urban landscape change
à Single family housing, increased commuting, growth in shopping malls and
consumptive activities
Segregation
By class à gated communities
Sprawl & mid-class enclaves
Models of Urban Structure:
McGee’s Model suggests only two consistent zones: port district and intensive market
gardening on periphery
Two broad zones that seem to exist in urban areas:
Port district – when most things develop
Intensive market gardening on periphery
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