During this second phase, some large early adopters get involved, spurring further headlines. In the third phase (cid:523)(cid:498)trough of disillusionment(cid:499)(cid:524), interest wanes as trials fail to deliver results and press coverage turns negative. Meanwhile, second- and third generation products begin to appear, providing the needed confidence for mainstream adopters to think about committing themselves: finally, the fifth phase (cid:523)(cid:498)plateau of productivity(cid:499)(cid:524) is where mainstream adoption takes off. 2015 patents: #1 ibm, samsung, all from technology and software (same industry) Canada"s top (cid:883)(cid:882)(cid:882) corporate r&d spenders: all at moderate companies. Research & development expenditure: us, china, japan, and europe, china has jumped as a major r&d spender, russia has low levels of r&d, forefront but never commercialize their innovations, us dominates with a third. Open innovation involve everyone including customers, suppliers, competitors: venture capital cash out when firms goes public universities, research institutes and others. Japan does a lot of patents but multiple counts: generally, small countries grant the most patents.