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Civil War Notes

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Department
History
Course
History 1810E
Professor
Geoff Stewart
Semester
Fall

Description
The Spice Wars Yannis Willi Vasco da Gama reached the shores of India in 1498  Gave presents and gifts to the local ruler of Calicut Was informed by local official that even the poorest merchant gave more than him Showed up next day without any presents Vasco Da Gama,  First person to successfully sail from Europe around Africa to South- East Asia  Opened up the Trade route between Europe and Asia  Set sail 1497  Made a hero after return in 1499  Profits made from the spices he brought back from India  Potential to make a country very wealthy  170 crew members  54 came back home alive  King set Vasco on another expedition in 1502  Using force to trade with Indian locals to trade  King Dom Manuel of Portugal o Appointed Vasco Da Gama as Captain-Major  Task of finding the king of the Christians  Three vessel fleet  Spices didn’t interest any buyers 1504/1505  Portuguese monopolize in the Indian Ocean  Wanted to be only European trade of spices  Develop a system Francisco d’Almeida  First viceroy of the Estado da India, 1505  Annual fleets of 20 ships or so standard  Member of important Portuguese family  Wanted to take control of Indian trade routes Spice Route  Route through the Middle East  Petra (City in a boulder)  Trade location  Portuguese traders decided to change trade route form India  Around South Africa  Focused on closing old trade routes Opponents of the Portuguese  Samudri of Calicut  Sultan of Gujerat  Mamluk Egypt  Venice The Movement North  The Portuguese capture and hold Socotra, 1506  The Portuguese try to capture Aden in 1506 and fail  The Portuguese try to capture to Hormuz in 1506 and 1508 and fail  The Battle of Chaul (1508) big battle between Egypt and Portugal  Egypt wins  D’Almeida’s son is killed during this battle  D’Almeida fights back at Diu in 1509 where the Portuguese destroy the Egyptian fleet and take them out of the race Economy of plunder  The Portuguese used force to take other nations out of the race  Also used force to plunder and scare their opponents from which they stole spices Phase 1  Francisco d’Almeida: The movement North  Focus on trade routes failed to secure monopoly  Mobility of traders  Began to acquire vested interests Phase 2  Alfonso d’Albuquerque  Was appointed as the next governor  A new strategy developed  First interest  Stabilize what they had  Lack of a central place to stock up for men and ships  Decided to capture Goa (India)  Local governor was Muslim while most inhabitants were Hindu  Captured Goa in 1510  Lost it  Re-Captured it 1512  Moluccas Islands were the main sources of clothes Varthema  Reported that there was busy trade in the Maluccas Islands  Portuguese were sure that Melaka was the source of the spice trade  If the Portuguese could control the Melaka Straight, they could control trade  Albuquerque tried to capture city of Melaka  Used diplomacy and failed  Used bombings and failed  Engaged frontal attack and conquered Melaka  Albuquerque was more successful than Almeida  Finally captured Hormuz in 1515 Summary  Established a military dominance  Captured cities The Civil War Yannis Willi The War: Grant Sherman, Shiloh, and the Western Theatre 1. Summary Comments on Lincoln, Succession, and the Choir of War 2. Strategic Considerations 3. Grant, Sherman, and Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862  Lincoln is elected by 40% popularity votes o 7 Deep south slave states separated from Lincoln’s Government  Texas  Mississippi  Alambama  Louisiana  Georgia  Florida  South Carolina  Jefferson Davis of Mississippi,  Appointed President Why did the south separate from the north? Why did Lincoln not let them (The South) go in peace? Northern states were pacifists “You can have slavery forever” – Lincoln to southern states  Would however not give them any territory or grant them to become their own nation  1860 – 32 million o USA population  750,000 people died  Over a million are wounded due to Civil War  If you have a military advantage over the enemy  Attack simultaneously on different fronts  1862 o 10,000 confederate forces o Ordered not to shoot until encountered the first lines of the defense  When gun is shot, reload time has to be taken  THE WESTERN THEATRE, during the Civil War  SHILOH  Robert E. Lee  General Robert E. Lee  General of the army o Didn’t like to use adjectives  Fearsome determination to stand fiercely apart  Did not look down directly after walking through battlefield o His surrender brought on the end of the war  When surrendering at the McLean House, Lee wore clothes he had never worn before  Grant wore the clothes he had been wearing for days o Lee flinched, never flinched before, when he saw a black officer and had to succumb to him Stonewall Jackson  Very religious o Tried to convince everyone to become religious  By southern standards, very eccentric  Never ate pepper o Gave him a pain in his leg James Ewell Brown Stuart  Major general of cavalry o 10,000 units  1864 died o wound in the stomach  took him two days to die  McClellan  John Pope  Burnside  Joe Hooker Fredericksburg  Union advance down from Washington o Burnside  85,000 troops o Lee  60,000  located on a elevated surface  16 degree angle  has sharpshooters set up o Union army has to cross the Rappahannock River  Must go through occupied Fredericksburg  Must go through a ditch  Must go through stone walls  Must fight uphill against Lee’s forces o Burnside’s forces are defeated o Hooker follows with his forces  80,000 troops o Lee  42,000 troops  splits his forces in half o Calls upon Stonewall to help him out  Plans on flanking them to the west  Order troops not to shoot from flank but only to use bayonets  Took 6000 prisoners  Stonewall was severely injured on his way back  Was shot on by his own troops  Died four days after the battle of Fredericksburg  Wife got to him in time o “What day is it?” –Stonewall o “Sunday” – His wife o “I’ve always wanted to die on a Sunday” –Stonewall  died that day o Hooker believes he is fighting Lee’s remaining 21,000  Unaware of remaining 21,000  Huge Union (North) loss  Greatest win for t
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