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History 2501E
Luz Hernandez- Saenz

Jan, 10, 2013 Modernization New Ideologies: -By the 19 century there was more emphasis on science and they were developing at a rapid rate in many fields and they were starting to use statistics and there was a great love for collecting data even if they were not sure what to do with it -Darwinism and Malthusian theories were some of the new theories at the time as well as Positivism -These ideas were very important because in Latin America race and progress were very important -The idea of race has changed but it has always been there as well as racial prejudice -In Latin America by the 1880’s one of the concerns was economic progress and many of the people thinking about these problems tried to understand why they had not developed more economically (hierarchical, fragmented society) and many thinkers tried to understand this and they were influenced by these theories and they were preoccupied with race and blamed it for their problems Positivism: -Was put together by August Comte and he wrote a two volume book from 1830-1842 and it rejects speculation and unanswerable metaphysical questions (metaphysics was a branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of existence) -Empirically verified knowledge is the sole type of human knowledge according to him and his method emphasized observation and experimentation and the search for laws or phenomena related to society because he wanted to improve it and this was the birth of the modern scientific method -He said phenomena was relative and not absolute and he really wanted to understand the laws of nature and society but their nature and ultimate causes were not important -He thought of society as an organism and he believed if you understood what changed society (laws) you could alter it for the better (wanted economic progress) -He had a lot of influence in Latin America because he was so pragmatic and because they wanted to improve their society and they idolized the French way of doing things Darwinism: -He was very much related to Positivism because he was so deeply into using observation -He put forth the idea of natural selection where only those with better adaptations would survive and this connected to the people of the time because economic competition was so fierce at the time -His work was shocking at the time because people did not like to be compared to animals and it directly contradicted the Bible Social Darwinism: -Was put forth by Herbert Spencer after the idea of survival of the fittest came out and he applied it to biology and also society and he looked at adaptation and he believed the societies that adapted better to nature were the ones that were going to do better -The time of the industrial revolution led people to believe that they were using technology to adapt and Spencer believed those that used it to the full potential were going to be the more successful (Europeans fit this description and they believed they were better than other groups) -The concept of race was not that well defined but things were still racist Social Darwinism in Latin America: -In Argentina Carlos Bunge wrote “Our America” but he mostly focused on Hispanic areas and he said they were too mixed and that they were not a pure race like the USA (white, blue eyed Americans) and he believed they were inheriting bad traits from different groups (sadness of the Indians, arrogance of the Spanish, arrogance of the mixed bloods, etc) -Bunge was influenced by his environment and Argentina was a place of civilization and barbarism according to many people and there were many immigrants coming in -Joaquin Gonzalez said that in Latin America Argentina said they were better off because they didn’t have indigenous people or slaves (which they did) but they did have a large population of Europeans -Jose Ingenieros was from Argentina and he said the superior white race made it inevitable in the Americas that they substitute the indigenous races Jan, 10, 2013 Novicow: -Was a writer and professor and he also thought that society was an organism and that it would conform to the laws of biology and he believed organisms were constantly in competition and while this is true to a certain point when talking about plants and animals it was harder to apply it to society -These ideas led people to justify mistreating natives because they believed they were incapable of carrying on while living their own way of life and this idea of one being better than led to the Nazi regime -Large jaws, high cheek bones, handle shaped ears, hawk like nose, fleshy lips, extra finger and toes were all traits that people believed were traits of criminals and this goes a long with the idea that some people are born better than another Thomas Malthus: -He believed that the earth had a population density that it at some point it could no longer support and that we were quickly reaching that point -He believed agriculture could not be expanded at the same pace that humans were reproducing and this also influenced Darwin on the way he thought about survival of the fittest Export Economics: -Emphasis was placed on material things and thus on exports and important and in Latin America they mostly exported raw materials, agricultural products, minerals, and in some areas meat -There was no emphasis on industrialization of Latin America because people believed they were producing goods enough to just focus on that -The want to produce as much as possible made education more important Education: -Became important because people who were trained in new skills were highly valuable and in some areas there was small mechanization of agriculture but labour was still the cheaper option and there was the need for labour Labour: -You had to train labourers to do work and they used incentives to get natives and others to work -In areas where there was difficult work to be done like with tropical
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