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Lecture 4

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Department
History
Course
History 2131A/B
Professor
Geoff Stewart
Semester
Winter

Description
apoliticalcommunicationtheoryusedtodescribe acommunicationandgovernancestyleoftheU.S. presidency. howpresidentscommunicate:drawingfrom de▯nition politicalscience,historyandcommunication studies(rhetoric). The"RhetoricalPresidency" popularizedmassmediaasatool. 20thcentury. presidentsbegantoappealdirectlytothepeople. dates&people beganwithTheodoreRooseveltandWoodrow Wilson. Roosevelt'sSquareDeal:aseriesofsocialandeconomicinitiatives;headvancedhispoliticalagendaanddenounced radicalismwithinthemediathroughhisbullypulpit. inthisinstance,"bully"inanadjectivemeaning "wonderful"or"superb". ThebeliefthattheWhiteHouseisaterri▯c signi▯canceandrelevancy WoodrowWilsonandTheodoreRooseveltbridge RooseveltdidnotaddressCongressinwriendocuments,butinsteadaddressedthempersonally. platformfromwhichtoadvocateanagenda. thegapbetweenthe19thcenturyand20th de▯nition centuryapproachestopresidentialrhetoric. WoodrowWilsonestablishedtwoformsofspeeches:the"visionaryspeech"whichgaveapictureofthefutureanda methodtoachieveitandthe"policy-standspeech"whichcommunicateswherethepresidentstandsonanissue. anopportunitytospeakoutandbelistenedto. transformedtheworkingsofthepresidencyasa TheBullyPulpit whole. PresidentAbrahamLincolnwasafraidthatthe EmancipationProclamation(1863)wouldbe dates&people consideredatemporarywarmeasuresinceitwas termfortheWhiteHousecoinedbyTheodore basedsolelyonLincoln'swarpowers. Roosevelt outlawsslaveryandinvoluntaryservitude de▯nition signi▯canceandlegacy Rooseveltissometimesregardedasthe"▯rst "Neitherslaverynorinvoluntaryservitude,except asapunishmentforcrimewhereofthepartyshall modernpresident"andheusedthemediatohis havebeendulyconvicted,shallexistwithinthe advantage. UnitedStates,oranyplacesubjecttotheir jurisdiction." notalawpassedbyCongress;butinsteadissued directlyfromLincolnusinghiswartime passedonApril8,1864(Senate)&January31, 1865(House) constitutionalauthorityasthecommanderin TheThirteenthAmendment chiefofthearmedforces. dates&people AdoptedonDecember6,1865 followedapreliminaryproclamation(September 22,1862)thatstatedLincolnwouldorderthe NostatesreturnedtotheUnion. emancipationofallslavesinanystateofthe ConfederateStatesofAmericathatdidnot the▯rstofthethreeReconstruction returntoUnioncontrolbyJanuary1,1863. de▯nition The13-15Amendmentsare AmendmentsadoptedaftertheCivilWar alsoknownasthe proclaimedthatallthoseenslavedinConfederate ReconstructionAmendments. signi▯canceandlegacy The▯rstamendmenttotheConstitutionin60 Providedabroadde▯nitionofcitizenshipthat didnotapplytoNorthernslaves/▯veslavestates territorytobeforeverfree;essentiallyfreeing3.1 Theyarealargepartof years. discreditedapriorSupremeCourtrulingthatblack thatwerenotinrebellionorinareasstillunder Lincoln'slegacy. peoplecouldnotbecitizensoftheU.S. millionofthe4millionslavesintheUnitedStates. rebellion;however,asthearmytookcontrolof completedtheabolitionofslaveryintheUnited Confederateregions,theslaveswereemancipated Didnotoutlawslavery,maketheex-slaves(called States. DueProcessClause:prohibitsstateandmunicipal ratherthanreturnedtotheirmasters. "freedmen")citizensnordiditcompensatethe governmentsfromdeprivingpersonsoflife,liberty slave-owners. The▯rst12amendmentslimit de▯nition orpropertywithoutensuringfairness. governmentalpower&their TheFourteenthAmendment abilitytointerferewith EqualProtectionClause:requireseachstateto citizens;whileamendments 13-15expandgovernment provideequalprotectionunderthelawtoallpeople power. withinitsjurisdiction. AbrahamLincolnissuedtheorder prohibitsallgovernmentsintheUnitedStates dates&people fromdenyingacitizentherighttovotebasedon people&dates thatcitizen's"race,colour,orpreviousconditionof adoptedonJuly9,1868 January1,1863 TheEmancipationProclamation servitude"
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