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History 2145A/B
Robert Ventresca

Jan 25/11 The Stages of German Fascism: Outline of the Nazi Rise to Power 1) Seeds of national socialism: Hitler’s Vienna 2) Defeat in War and Crisis of Weimar Germany 3) Creation of Nazi movement: the early NSDAP 4) Rooting in the political system: extra-parliamentary and parliamentary politics, 1923-1930 5) Economic and political crisis: Hitler in government, 1933 Hitler: Subject of Austria, Son of the Volk -Austria was a multi-ethnic/multi-lingual empire -he was close to the German border -moves to Vienna during WW1, then Munich after WW1 -he has an ethnic German consciousness -Austria is big time Catholic- ties to Papacy -Austrian-Hungarian empire is a dying empire- has a lot of problems -Germany is unified, growing, becoming a dominant world power -lower-middle class background Budding Artist? -Hitler aspired to be an artist Hitler’s Vienna Years, 1907-1913 -wondering around Vienna -very solitary, pathetic figure *-3 key ideas that Hitler learned in Vienna: 1) racial and anti-Semitism: fears of ‘racial degeneration’-encounters a Jewish community for the first time in Vienna that he sees as distinct, sees Jews as a racial threat 2) Pan-German nationalism- Austrian subject but member of the German Volk find a political voice 3) Power of mass politics- appreciates this -these are not unique to Hitler, but he plants these into his ideasPoliticizing Pan German Nationalism: The Pan German Nationalism- George von Schonerer -they are creating political movements -anti-socialism -anti-Semitism -anti-Habsburg (monarchy that reigns over the Austrian-Hungarian empire, also anti-Catholic -pro-Anschluss (want to see the unification of Germany and Austria -forming political movements whose platforms advocate these things Christian Social Party- Karl Lueger -charismatic man, powerful -center-right of the spectrum -animated by catholic social principles -anti-Semitic- identifying Jews as the problem- politically, economically, socially- ex. if there is a bribery scandal they blame the Jewish influence- scapegoat -Hitler appreciates the power of charisma, persuasion *-these ideas and sentiments are moving out of the shadows into political platforms -unifying principle seems to be anti-Semitism -ethnic, Volkisch nationalism, pan German- wants an exclusively ethnic german state, anti- Semitic, mass based (power of the masses) Nazi party rally: 1934- The “masses” -understands mass politics -struck by numbers, strength Studying the Art of Persuasion -Hitler had a photographer take pictures of him in poses -pretending he is making a speech -wondering how he looks, what effect will it have *-the coming of the era of mass politics (look back on notes) -political culture is different in different places The Banality of Evil “The greatest of all experiences”: Hitler in WW1 -he and Mussolini discuss about how they were made in the trenches -Hitler thinks he is destined to lead the German people *-he goes into the war with those ideas already- hates Marxists, communism, Jews -Hitler believes Germany loses the war because they had been betrayed from within -communists, Jews- invisible foes of the German people Versailles: The Twenty Year Truce -joins the national socialist party -Weimar Republic lacks legitimacy -portion of Germans don’t see the agreement as legitimate- shared by radical nationalists and conservatives **-influential segments of society who refuse to see the Weimar republic as their system- anti- system- huge segments of the military, conservatives (upper-middle class, judges) -they tolerate Weimar but don’t like it, wish for another type of Germany -Hitler gets a light sentence after the Beer Hall Putsch because the judge sympathizes with him, agrees with him- he is a conservative -Weimar system doesn’t have enough patrons (a group who supports a certain political system) to back it up Weimar Political System (and flaws?) 1) proportional representation voting- popular vote translates into seat distribution- guarantees a multi-party system- creates pol
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