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Lecture

1403E - Lecture 40.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
History 2145A/B
Professor
David Norton

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Hist1403E March 26, 2012 Lecture 40 TOPIC The Cold War Defined: Antagonism between nations, only threats, and no actions taken. 1945 – United Nations  General Assembly o When nations have earned seats to send some representatives in Geneva. Everyone has the freedom to voice their opinions.  Security Council o The 5 nations that claimed victory in WWII and started the United Nations. o The group with the power. It has the authority to round up troops and interfere in countries, but must have the approval of all 5 countries (Britain, USA, France, Russian, and China). USSR/USA Competition  A constant dispute over communism and democracy, as well as totalitarianism and democracy, or communism and capitalism.  Who is to blame for this antagonism?  1946 – Baruch Plan o Member of Congress in the USA. Claimed that it was important that the Western countries not allow Communism to spread. o He proposed donating money itself and contribution from the USA, so that it could be used to stop Communism if it started to spread. o Trouble: Attached to the plan was the idea that it would be acted through the UN. However, because Stalin/Russia was part of the Security Council, Stalin vetoed it.  1947 – Truman Doctrine o Says the same thing as Baruch, but is willing to do it separately from the UN. o National Security Council  Truman says that we need a body to help the President make decisions: the National Security Council. (Therefore the President cannot be totally blamed for mistakes.) o Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)  Lends great support to the CIA.  A spy organiation that would investigate countries suspected of becoming communism. Only to investigate and advise the president. o Communist Information Bureau (Cominform)  Started by the USSR in response to the USA’s CIA. They will enter into countries where there might possibly be communism expanding.  Investigates and informs Stalin, but will also send in troops to help the communists. 1947/8 Berlin Blockade  Americans did three things: o Stalin said that there was a lot more money being given to the allied nations and not enough given to help Stalin rebuild EAST Germany. o Stalin was told by the Americans that he couldn’t establish a Communist sector in Berlin – it simply would work (this was a fact). o Americans establish a new currency in West Germany. Stalin said this violated their original agreement. Sends him over the edge.  As a result of these three things, he blockades Berlin (East and West) by bringing in his military forces.  The people are incredibly afraid that this will lead to immense violence and arms.  However, the allies are sending enough supplies to sustain the East and his efforts are useless. He backs down.  1949 – Federal Republic of German (Allies) o Democratic, taken care of by the Americans. The people are allowed to raise up their own leadership.  1949 – German Democratic Republic (USSR) o Stalin controls the whole thing, and Totalitarian rules. 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  The purpose is military cooperation. If any nations touching the Atlantic are attacked, the other countries will come to help. It continue
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