Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Allostatic Load, Hans Selye, Walter Bradford Cannon

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Thursday, January 22, 2015
Stress: The Constant Challenge
Managing stress, Brainsmart, BBC
take a few deep breaths any time you feel stress
stress is a survival method when the time comes, “fight or flight”
stress is a physical reaction and deep breathing counteracts it
get in control, and scope out the situation
talk to someone, socialize and have a laugh
get down in nature
physical activity
What is Stress?
Stress refers to:
1) Situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions = STRESSOR
2) Reactions themselves = STRESS RESPONSE (how you learn to cope with it)
STESS = the general physical and emotional stat that accompanies the stress response
Responses to Stressors
Primary determinant of the health consequences associated with stress is how the
individual responds to the stress
Responses to stressors include:
-Physical changes
-Emotional and behavioural responses
Physical Responses to Stressors
Two control systems are responsible for the physical response to stressors:
1) Nervous system
2) Endocrine system
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Thursday, January 22, 2015
Physical Responses to Stressors
Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous system
-Part of the nervous system that is not under conscious supervision
-Consists of two divisions
1) Parasympathetic Division
In control when you ware relaxed
Aids in digestion, storing energy, growth promotion
2) Sympathetic Division
Activated during arousal and emergency situations (pain, anger, fear)
Releases norepinephrine which commands body to mobilize energy
resources to respond to crisis and causes arousal (increase attention
and alertness) when released in the brain
Endocrine System
System of glands, tissues, and cells that help control body functions by releasing
hormone and other chemical messengers into the bloodstream
Helps prepare the body to respond to stressor
Nervous system + Endocrine system
BRAIN DETECTS THREAT:
Neruo-chemical message sent to HYPOTHALAMUS which releases chemical to
PITUITARY GLAND which releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into
bloodstream
ACTH reaches ADRENAL GLANDS which release CORTISOL and other key
hormones into the bloodstream
SIMULTANEOUSLY:
Sympathetic nerves instruct ADRENAL GLANDS to release the hormone
EPINEPHRINE (adrenaline) which triggers several bodily changes
-Ex. acute hearing and vision, increase heart rate, increase perspiration, etc.
Nervous system + endocrine system = FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT REACTION(Sir Walter
Cannon)
**Physical changes vary in intensity but the same physical reactions occur in response
to both positive and negative stressors
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Thursday, January 22, 2015
Homeostasis
State in which blood pressure, heart rate, hormone levels, and other vital functions are
maintained within a narrow range of normal
Once a stressful situation ends, the parasympathetic division of the ANS initiates
adjustments necessary to restore homeostasis
Fight-or-Flight Reaction in Modern Life
Flight is withdrawal and fight is aggression
A survival mechanism that is part of our biological heritage
Not often necessary-many stressors we encounter do not require a physical reaction
Fight-or-flight reaction prepares the body for physical action regardless of whether it is
an appropriate response
We can’t avoid stress, is important for decision making and learning how to cope
Emotional and Behavioural Responses to Stressors
cognitive appraisal of a potential stress strongly influences how you view it
2 factors that can reduce magnitude of the stress response are successful prediction
and the perception of control
cognitive appraisal is highly individual and strongly related to emotions
Effective and ineffective responses
effective: talking, laughing, exercising, meditating, learning time-management skills,
and becoming more assertive
ineffective: overeating, expressing hostility, and using tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs
Personality and stress
personality: sum of behavioural, cognitive and emotional tendencies and affects how
people perceive and react to stressors
resilience: personality traits associated with social and academic success in at-risk
populations
-nonreactive resilience
-homeostatic resilience
-positive growth resilience
Cultural Background
clashing of cultures can be a big source of stress
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Document Summary

Stress refers to: situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions = stressor, reactions themselves = stress response (how you learn to cope with it) Stess = the general physical and emotional stat that accompanies the stress response. Responses to stressors: primary determinant of the health consequences associated with stress is how the individual responds to the stress, responses to stressors include: Two control systems are responsible for the physical response to stressors: nervous system, endocrine system. Part of the nervous system that is not under conscious supervision. Endocrine system: system of glands, tissues, and cells that help control body functions by releasing hormone and other chemical messengers into the bloodstream, helps prepare the body to respond to stressor. Brain detects threat: neruo-chemical message sent to hypothalamus which releases chemical to. Pituitary gland which releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) into bloodstream: acth reaches adrenal glands which release cortisol and other key hormones into the bloodstream.

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