Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Resting Metabolic Rate, Female Athlete Triad, Adipose Tissue

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Tuesday, February 3, 2015
Obesity and Weight Management
Obesity: Popular Media Images
Faceless people, only torsos of people with obesity
Obesity: “Perfect At Any Size” Images
People are human and doing everyday things, living their lives
Away from the stigma of obesity
Obesity
Linked with many chronic diseases, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, CV
disease, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer
-In 2012, 41.3% of Canadian men and 26.9% of women were classified as
overweight (BMI findings because it is easy to do with large samples of people,
measuring height and weight)
-19% of men and 18% of women were classified as obese in Canada in 2012
-Combined rates have remained stable since 2010
Childhood Obesity
Canadian children have become progressively overweight and obese
-31.5% of 5-17 year old children over weight (19.8%) or obese (11.7%) compared
to 15% in 1978
Linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, discrimination, and decrease social well-
being
-…”obesity is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, with up to 85% of affected children
either overnight or obese are diagnosis”
Tracks to adulthood —> important to intervene during childhood
!1
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Tuesday, February 3, 2015
Basic Concepts of weight management
Body Composition
Body can be divided not fat-free mass (composed of body’s non-fat tissues) and body
fat
Body fat comes in 3 types:
-Subcutaneous fat: fat just beneath the skin; critical for normal body functioning
-Visceral fat: fat inside the abdominal wall and around the internal organs; an
excess leads to a greater risk of heart disease, insulin resistance, and metabolic
syndrome
-Ectopic fat: fat located on or within organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain;
increases risk of metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and stroke.
Percent body fat: percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat
Energy Balance
Energy in (food calories)-energy out (physical activity, food digestion, resting
metabolism) balance **Key to weight management
Evaluating Body Weight and Body Composition
Overweight: body weight that falls above the recommended range for good health
Obesity: condition of having excess of nonessential body fat; having a BMI of 30 or
greater of having a percentage fat greater than about 25% for men and 33% for
women
Body Mass Index: measure of relative body weight that takes height into account and
is highly correlated with more direct measures of body fat; calculated by dividing total
body weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meters)
Body composition analysis: hydrostatic (underwater) weighing and bod pod, skin fold
measurements, electrical impedance analysis, scanning procedures
Excess Body Fat and Wellness
Health risks of excess body fat
Body fat distribution and health
Body image: inaccurate or negative body image is common and can lead to
psychological distress
-Body image: mental representation a person holds about their body at any given
moment in time, consisting of perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes, and
emotions about the body
Problems associated with very low levels of body fat
!2
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Document Summary

Obesity: popular media images: faceless people, only torsos of people with obesity. Obesity: perfect at any size images: people are human and doing everyday things, living their lives, away from the stigma of obesity. Obesity: linked with many chronic diseases, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cv disease, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer. In 2012, 41. 3% of canadian men and 26. 9% of women were classi ed as overweight (bmi ndings because it is easy to do with large samples of people, measuring height and weight) 19% of men and 18% of women were classi ed as obese in canada in 2012. Combined rates have remained stable since 2010. Childhood obesity: canadian children have become progressively overweight and obese. 31. 5% of 5-17 year old children over weight (19. 8%) or obese (11. 7%) compared to 15% in 1978: linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, discrimination, and decrease social well- being.

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