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Lecture 7

Lecture 7- Chapter 5 - Nutrition.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 5 Nutrition Lecture 7 What is Diet and NutritionAn area in which you have increased controlDieting can really damage bodyProvide s body with nutrients required to o Produce energy o Repair damaged tissue o Promote tissue growth o Regulate physiological processesChoosing a healthy diet involves 1 Knowing which nutrients are necessary and in which amounts 2 Translating those requirements into a diet consisting of foods you like and that are available and affordable to you a Cant be always sacrificing or it wont be sustainableNutritional Requirements Body requires proteins fats carbohydrates vitamins minerals and water o Essential NutrientsMeaning you must get substances from foodBody cannot manufacture them or not in great enough quantitiesBody obtains nutrients through digestionEnergy in food express in kilocalories o Scientific expression of the energy value of a food o How much energy it takes to raise 1L of water by 1 degree CelsiusThree classes of essential nutrients supply energy o Fats9 caloriesgram o Protein4 caloriesgram o Carbohydrates4 caloriesgramIf all types of calories are GREATER than energy needsconverted to fat and stored in the body ProteinsOverviewFound in every living cellPromotes growth and maintenance of body tissuePrimary component of muscle and connective tissue Form important parts of o Blood enzymes some hormones and cell membranesComposed of chains of amino acidsWhen an essential amino acid is missing from a dietdeficiency Hard on kidneys if you intake too muchFoods that contain 9 essential amino acids o Complete proteinsMilk meat fish poultry cheese eggs soy beans tofuFoods that contain less than 9 essential amino acids o Incomplete proteinsVegetables grains legumes nutsEssential amino acids can be obtained from combinations of incomplete protein sources o Dont have to eat them in the same meal just throughout the day o Red beans and rice Weight Management Consumption of protein with carbohydrates delays carb absorption and attenuates the bodys insulin responseProtein more satiating than carbohydratesDietary intakes with 15 of energy from protein can result in muscle loss o Appears to be no difference in lean body mass gains between 1525 proteindietsHigh protein diets do not lead to weight loss unless calories are also reduced Fats Lipids RoleProvide a concentrated form of energyGive some foods a pleasing taste and textureHelp absorption of fatsoluble vitamins A D E KInsulates our bodies to help retain heatProvides a protective cushion for internal organs and bonesVisible fats represent only 40 of the fat we consume34 tsp satisfies requirement for fatty acids
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