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Chapter 19 All the information plus the blanks and extra information said in class

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

AGING: A VITAL PROCESS Required reading: Chapter 19 pp. 580-590 Kassy Birtch Honors Spec. B.Sc. M.Sc. Student in Health and Rehabilitative Science The University of Western Ontario Canadas Seniors Proportion of Canadian seniors (65+) o 1/20 in 1921 1/8 in 2001 (life span is changing because of life style and health care) By 2026, 1/5 Canadians will have reached age 65 Population aging is a complex issue: o Well-being of older Canadians o broader areas affecting the total population (e.g., health, labour markets, public finances) Causes of an Aging Population 1. Change in fertility rates since 1945 o 1940s - 1960s: Each woman had roughly 3+ children o Mid 1970s to present: Decrease in birth rate results in roughly 1.5 children per woman o Baby boomer population is funneling out, on the graph they have the highest population Causes of an Aging Population 2. Increase in Life Expectancy o Life expectancy: average length of time a person is expected to live As life expectancy increases a higher proportion of population will be in later years o 30% of people born in 1900 would live to age 70 o 77% of people born in 2004 the number is known, but there is going to be a relative incease compared to those born in 1900 Causes of an Aging Population In 1997 life expectancy at birth was 75.8 yrs for men & 81.4 yrs for women Life Expectancy Factors that affect life expectancy Social Factors o i.e. Support systems increases life expectancy as you have people to help you through your problems and issues, religious adherence Biological Factors o i.e. hormones Lifestyle factors o i.e. dietary habits and physical fitness Why do women live longer? WOMEN o Protective effects of estrogen o Lower rates of stress-related illness o Cope by seeking social support MEN o Higher rates of risky behaviours o More likely to die from crashes, unintentional injuries, suicide- have a higher rate of suicide than women, AIDS, and early myocardial infarction Aging and Life Expectancy Life Span : o Theoretically projected length of time left based on maximal potential of human body in best environment (theoretical number, influenced by your lifestyle choices) Longevity influenced little by genetics Senior Women and Senior Men Women form the majority of the Canadian senior population (56% in 2001) o 60% seniors aged 75-84 o 70% of seniors aged 85+ Nearly 1/3 seniors are widowed o In 1996; 75% of seniors were married compared to 41% of women (higher population of women that are widowed than in the younger populations) Aging and Life Expectancy Although women are living longer, their extra years may not be healthy ones (their quality of life is not necessarily better if they are living longer) o Chronic conditions (arthritis, osteoporosis) o Widowed o High probability of living alone (because they are widowed) o Less likely to be covered by a pension (women before used to have lower paying jobs therefore their pension money was low) Aging and the Health Care system Implications: o 96% of seniors living at home saw at least one health professional within a year (have a large proportion that are trained health care professionals that commute to individuals in their home that are older to take care of them) o 84% of seniors reported taking some medication in a 2-day period (are the individuals covered for these medications and the health care professionals have to make sure that they are getting their medications) o 56% reporting taking two or more medications (health care professionals have to make sure they are not mixing medications, they are taking all the required ones and they are taking them on time) Aging and the Health Care System The challenges of an aging Canadian society will require ongoing efforts to: o Improving health, independence in later life o Facilitate participation o Strengthen supportive environments o Sustain government programs for Canadians of all ages Canadas Federal Government and Aging Federal involvement in aging policies and programs includes: o Canada Mortgage Housing Corporation (looks for housing possibilities for elders and are near health care facilities) o Health Canada (health promotion programs) o Human Resources Development Canada (public retire income programs pensions and benefits) o Status of Women Canada (issues in senior womens health and provide information for them) o Veterans Affairs Canada (health care programs for individuals with disabilities and provide income support for elders who need them and their families) What Happens as You Age? Many of the characteristics associated with aging are actually a result of neglect and abuse to our bodies and minds This is the foundation for later: o Psychological problems o Chronic conditions As we Age: Aging is a natural process, so despite optimal behaviours and environment aging will occur o This results from a series of biochemical processes not yet fully understood by scientists o Studies of healthy individuals indicate constant biological functioning until age 70 Theories on Aging No one theory accommodates all facts Aging likely caused by variety of processes and factors (environmental and biological) o Cellular theories o Immune theories o Metabolic theories
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