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2012.03.20 - HSci 1001 Lecture Review Notes.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

HealthSci Lecture Review Notes Chapter 8  Cancer – abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells o Tumour – mass of cells with no physiological purpose o Benign tumour – only dangerous if it interferes with other bodily functions o Malignant tumour – cancerous and can spread to surrounding tissues o Remission – period during cancer where there are no symptoms or evidence of the disease, which can last for years o Cancer tends to be more common in elderly people  45% of men and 40% of women will have cancer in their lifetime  Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada (followed by heart disease and stroke)  Metastasis – spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another  Stages of cancer: o Stage 0 – early cancer, present only in origin layers of cells o Stage I, II, III – more extensive cancer, bigger tumour size or has spread o Stage IV – advanced cancer that has spread to another organ  Types of malignant tumours: o Carcinomas – most common type; arise from epithelia (tissue that covers external body surfaces, lines internal tubes and cavities, and form secreting portion of glands)  Example: skin, breast, uterus, prostate, lung and gastrointestinal o Sarcomas – arise from connective and fibrous tissue  Example: muscle, bone, cartilage and membranes covering muscles and fat o Lymphomas – cancers of lymph nodes (part of body’s infection-fighting system) o Leukemias – cancers of blood-forming cells, which reside in bone marrow  50% of all cancers may be preventable o Tobacco use accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths and 85% of lung cancer  87% of lung cancer cases can be prevented by avoiding tobacco exposure o Poor diet, exercise habits, and obesity account for ~22% of all cancer deaths  Role of DNA: o Oncogene – if mutated it can cause cancer o Tumour suppressor gene – normal function to control cell growth (unmutated oncogene) o Mutagens – substances that cause mutation in DNA o Carcinogens – mutagens that cause cancer  New evidence shows that lifestyle factors are related to modifications in DNA o Dietary factors – alcohol consumption and obesity/physical activity  Not correlated with BMI, rather fat content o Hormone replacement therapy (high estrogen level) o Smoking o Environmental toxins (benzene, lead, etc.)  Lung cancer – most common cause of cancer death  Colon cancer – typically arises from pre-existing polyps (small growths on the colon wall)  Prostate cancer – can be tested by a digital rectal exam or a Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test o If the prostate is removed, it can cause erectile dysfunction and incontinence (inability to control urine flow)  Cervical cancer – typically stems from the STD called HPV o Condoms reduce the risk of contracting HPV  Ovarian cancer – rare, but kills more women than cervical and uterine cancer combined o It is difficult to detect early  Skin cancer: o Easily detected and highly curable when detected early o Caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays (typically sunburns/tans) o There are two types of skin cancer:  Non-melanoma – most common cancer (1/3 of all cases)  Melanoma – more dangerous/deadly form o Prevention:  Avoid long term exposure to sunlight and avoid blistering/peeling sunburns o Detec
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